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Elements of Literature
Transcript of Elements of Literature
can move chronologically (through TIME), spatially (through
SPACE), &emphatically (degrees of emphasis) 1. exposition background information; situates the characters & gives a frame of reference 2. rising action sequencing of events, feelings and dialogue that force the action towards a climax 5. climax moment of greatest emotional tension in a story; often found
towards the end of a story 4. forshadowing a hint, usually a figurative suggestion of things to come 3.conflict 7.Resolution (denoument) conflict is resolved--often no resolution in modern & postmodern lit context of the action of story, frames the characters according to: 1. time
4.atmosphere/mood the subjects influencing or being influenced by events and setting; all characters possess MOTIVATION that explains their thoughts, feelings, actions and speech Types: Protagonist: main character; engages reader's interest & sympathy
Antagonist: force that opposes the protagonist, often the "Bad Guy"
Secondary character: characters that help move along plot, but aren't primary agents
Dynamic: changes often through redemption, lessons learned
Static: can be flat or round but neither changes nor evolves
Flat: one-dimensional BUT can become round
Round: multidimensional, psychologically complex character
Stock: stereotypical character; often created from multitude off cliches and social prejudices
Foil: provides a contrast or conflict for antoher characer--often for the protagonist person vs. person
person vs. society
person vs. nature
person vs. God
person vs. himself
person vs. machine A class of wills or forces often between an ANTAGONIST and a PROGTAGONIS which is either INTERNAL (person vs. self or EXTERNAL forces: deals with the narrator (who is telling the story) & the perceptions he or she brings. The NARRATIVE VOICE filters the action, setting, and characters of the story. Types: 1. First person (I, we, etc.): Just one character's consciousness is revealed
a character, object, setting, action, name, etc. that maintains its literal (denotative) meaing but suggests a figurative (connotative) meaning. CommonTypes: visual allegory: "Voyage of Life-- Youth" by Edward Cole Conventional: symbols that are understood and shared by large groups of people or a culture
Literary: symbols can be conventional, but are established internally by the context of the work in which they appear
Allegory: while symbols are suggestive, allegory has a fixed, definite figurative meaning; only ONE abstract idea can be cgenearted by a concrete object
Metaphor: figure of speech that makes an indirect comparison between two unlike subjects.
Simile: Compares two unlike items (like metaphors) BUT introduces them with the words "like" or "as" This film has been called a metaphor for both apartheid in S. Africa and U.S. anti-Mexican sentiment Love is like a rose Kirk, Spock, & McCoy = symbols for Logic, Reason, and Emotion Types of STYLE Conventions: Diction--word choices can be succinct, terse, humorous, slang, sophisticated, etc.
Length/Type of Sentences--depending on diction, short/simple sentences can denote simplicity, directness, etc.
Use of Dialogue: can be used exclusively or sparsely Tone/mood: the author's voice or attitude that conveys an emotional quality (sadness, glee, nostalgia, depression, hope, celebration, etc.) Four main types of Irony: all deal w.discrepancies Verbal--saying one thing but meaning another; sarcasm
Situational--disconnect between what is expected to say or happen and what is actually said or happened
Dramatic: occurs when the reader or viewer has more knowledge about a situation that a character or narrator.
Cosmic: idea that fate, destiny, or a god controls & toys with human beings; a notion that some force just beyond human understanding is frusting human activity and/or events. 6.Epiphany moment of insight by which a
character's life is altered ex. a cellar creates one mood;
a moutaintop another 2. Second person (you, your): Speaks directly to the reader: rare. 3. Third person:
Omniscient: all knowing--reports/evaluates thoughts/feelings of many characters
Limited Omniscient: restricted to a single perspective
Objective: reports action and dialogue in a detached/journalistic fashion. 4. Stream of Consciousness: Takes reader inside the conscious or unconscious mind of a character
5. Reliable: Is credible; can be trusted to filter events and others
6. Unreliable: Not credible due to character flaws, naivete, lack of insight; reader must supply the critical perspective. Deborah Kitchell "Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains" - Rousseau O. searching for the murderer
of the King of Thebes