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CfE H Geography: Global Issues - River Basin Management
Transcript of CfE H Geography: Global Issues - River Basin Management
FOR RBM ...
200 years ago, the rivers of the USA contained thundering rapids, towering waterfalls and fast currents. With world population and development growing rapidly we need river basin management more than ever
This is an additional tool to assist with revision after looking through your notes, books and past papers. It is not a replacement for the above!
major RIVER BASINS
general patterns of distribution and the number of rivers
directions of flow
explain the distribution by referring to mountain ranges as major sources of rivers due to their greater rainfall
climate patterns in the area
places where river basins meet seas/oceans.
When building a dam, both physical and human factors need to be considered:
THE EFFECT OF
DAM BUILDING ON THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE
Remember you may be asked for
positive or negative consequences, or both, for a combination of the three areas below:
The effects on people / society / communities
When describing the distribution of river basins you should refer to:
The Rocky Mountains run from the north to the south of the west coast. Mountain ranges play a significant role in their distribution - providing a source and watershed from snowmelt and high precipitation. Rivers flow in all directions from the Rockies e.g. NW into the Arctic Ocean, W into the Pacific, Sacramento, SW into the Gulf of California e.g. Colorado and E e.g. Missouri. A large number of rivers flow from the West and East into the Hudson Bay, fed from the Canadian Shield. The South East of the USA is dominated by the Mississippi, which is fed by the Rockies to the West, Appalachians in the East and has several large tributaries before it flows into the Gulf of Mexico. River basins are found across the United States but there are fewer in the north-west.
describe and EXPLAIN THE DISTRIBUTION OF NORTH AMERICA'S RIVERS
Underlying rock should be impermeable to prevent water leaking and solid to provide a stable foundation
The site should not be affected by earthquake activity or subsistence to avoid the risk of damage
Low evaporation to keep water levels high
Enough precipitation upstream to replenish supplies
Good accessibility to allow for dam construction and ongoing maintenance.
Preferably a narrow valley, gorge or canyon to keep dam costs down but deep enough to hold a sufficient amount of water
Any areas of settlement which would be flooded and relevant relocation costs
Similarly, area of farmland lost and cost of compensation to farmers
Possible loss of historical or cultural sites
Proximity to consumers of the power produced (HEP), farmland needing irrigated and settlements needing a supply of drinking water
Reduced water flow behind the dam
Increased evaporation from the water surface in reservoirs
Infiltration rates affected by water held in reservoirs
Diversion or channeling of rivers
Microclimate changes in the immediate local area
Fluctuating water tables
Changes in river levels, in particular, seasonal variations
This concerns; money / industry / jobs / investment/ local and national economy
Involves effect on landscape, environment, wildlife
There may be a reduction of flow downstream of the dam, leading to less available water downstream
Polluted water may cross boundaries
One area may gain control over another areas water supply
Countries or states may have to share the cost of dam construction
Complex legal legislation may need to be written up to ensure benefits and consequences are equally shared as well as the allocation of water
Where river basins cross political, state or country borders political issues can arise: