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Russia Project

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Julia King

on 12 March 2014

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Transcript of Russia Project

Russia Project
By: Julia King and Sarah O'Connor
Settlement of the East Slavs--Kievan Rus' (844)
Originated in modern day Belarus
Empire: Kievan Rus'
Originated from the Slavs
Eastern Orthodox
Fall of the empire led to the evolution of the East Slavs into Russian, Ukrainian, and Belorussian peoples
Christianization of Russia (956)
Prince Vladimir = baptized
Wanted to convert and evangelize his people
Looked into:
Roman Catholic
Impressed by church of St. Sophia in Constantinople
Adopted the Eastern Orthodox faith
Ivan III - The Great (1/22/1440-10/27/1505)
Ivan IV - The Terrible
Ruled: 1533-1547
Father: Tsar Vasily III
Took over government at 14 yrs. old
Established a tradition of absolute rule
Childhood of abuse and repression
Got rid of the last of the Mongols
Provided territotial expansion
Centralized the bureacracy
Blood thristy habits and cruel personality
The Beginnings of the Romanov Dynasty
Lasted from 1613-1917
Michael Romanov was the new Tsar
Cleared the land of invaders (Sweden and Poland)
Brought prosperity
Trade with foreign countries improved
Agriculture also improved
Catherine the Great
Married to Peter III
Russian Orthodox
Became autocratic ruler after Peter III's death
Acquired territories in S. Ukraine and Crimmea
Extended nobles' rights and privileges
Changed appearance of St. Petersburg
The Crimean War
October 1853–February 1856
Crimean Peninsula
Russians vs. Britain, France, and Ottoman Turkish
Argument between Russia and France over Russian Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches in Palestine.
Khodynka Field Tragedy
May 18th 1896
celebrating the coronation of new Russian Tsar Nicholas II
1,389 deaths
Rumors of free beer, pretzels and gingerbread
Not enough food for everyone
1,389 were trampled to death
1,300 injured
led to Tsar Nicholas II's removal from power in 1917
last Tsar of Russia.
Arrival of Vikings & the Rurik dynasty (862)
Rurik = Viking prince from Scandinavia.
Arrived with 2 brothers & followers in Novgorod.
Ruled parts of united Russia for 800 yrs.
Kiev = 2nd largest city for 300 yrs.
founded by Rurik's kinsman
Rurik's son = prince of Kiev
Invasion of the Mogols (1237)
Mongols = Led by Batu Khan
grandson of Jenghiz Khan
Launched invasion on Kievan Rus'
Destroyed all major cities except Novgorod and Pskov
Mongols became empire of The Golden Horde
Reigned from 1462-1505)
Came from a line of dark dukes
Father = Vasily II the Dark
Grand prince of Moscow
Moscow gained independence from the Mongols under his reign
Made Moscow the center of the russian world
expanded its borders
The Rise of Muscovy (Moscow)
Moscow = Insignificant trading post during the Mongol rule
The outpost's remote, forested location offered some security from Mongol attack
Rivers provided access to the Baltic and Black seas and to the Caucasus region.
Rule by a series of princes who were ambitious enhanced Moscow into the state of Muscovy.
Time of Troubles
Followed the collapse of the Rurik dynasty
Ended with the establishment of the Romanov dynasty
Peasant uprisings
Attempts of pretenders threatening to seize the throne and destrow the state itself
Trans-Siberian Rail Road
• Emperor Alexander III came up with the idea of this railroad and instructed his son to begin constructing it
• A rail road created due to economic problems in Russia and became the focus of their national pride
• Travels from Moscow to Vladivostok
• Construction began in February 1891
• 1891-1904
• Rail road ran through mountains, taigas, and through populated cities
• Worker: exiled prisoners up to soldiers

Russo-Japanese War
• Russia and Japan
• Fought for who would dominate Korea and Manchuria
• Japan forces Russia to give up its expansionist policy in the Far East
• East Asia
• 1904-05
• Rivalry for dominance in East Asia
• Japan was victorious in the outcome of the war soon making it the first non-European and non-American imperialist modern state

1905 Revolution
• Began with a protest lead by a Russian Orthodox, Father Gapon, on January 22nd in St. Petersburg to protest about their lifestyle
• After the news of Bloody Sunday, a massacre of 100+or – people marching through St. Petersburg killed by soldiers, had spread throughout Russia people went on strikes and peasants killed landlords
• People began to demand political rights and to improve their living standards
• The Finns and Poles demanded independence
• Nicholas II’s October Manifesto was made on October 30th to appease the protesters

WWI Russia
• 1914-1918
• WWI impacted Russia disastrously
• Military disasters at the Masurian and Tannenburg greatly weakened the Russian army in the beginning of the war
• Gregory Rasputin’s influence devastated the royal family at the end of the spring of 1917
• Nicholas II had kept the army on the Eastern front leaving Alexandra in control who was under the influence of Rasputin
• Rasputin shamed the royal family by his influence in the government
• Rasputin warned Nicholas II not to go to war because they would be defeated
• The Duma seeing Rasputin as a threat went to the emperor and the members complained to Nicholas that there was no government back in the cities
• Alexandra responded to their complaint by limiting the Duma’s power
• In September 1915 the Duma had dissolved and Rasputin had taken governmental power of St. Petersburg
• December 1916 Rasputin was assassinated by Prince Yusipov
• Nicholas had lost control by January 1917
• February-March 1917 lack of food, lack of decisive government, and the cold had moved the people of Petrograd to the streets (leading into the February Revolution)

February Revolution
• 1917 when riots broke out over scarcity of food in St. Petersburg
• After WWI, Russia had unsupplied troops, the economy was in disaster, and moderates had joined Russian radicals to overthrow the czar
• March 8, 1917 in Petrograd demonstrators supported by 90,000 people on strike took the streets in protest and clashed with the police
• March 10 the strike had spread among the workers of Petrograd
• March 11 the Petrograd army garrison went to hold back a crowd of protesters and later unexpectedly switched sides forcing the imperial government was forced to resign and the provisional government was established
• Nicholas gave up the throne ending czarist rule in Russia

October Revolution
• April 1917, Lenin returns to Russia with permission from the German government to cross Germany
• The Germans hoped the Bolsheviks would undermine the Russian’s war effort Lenin promoted this idea to the Bolshevik party
• A failing military offensive in July angered the provisional government, increased violence in Petrograd led to demands for the soviet to take power which was accepted by the Bolsheviks
• Prince Lvov resigned and was replaced by Kerensky
• The provisional government, the Menshevik, and Socialist Revolutionary lost support from soldier and workers who turned to the Bolsheviks
• Mid-September the Bolsheviks had a majority in the Petrograd soviet and Lenin urged the soviet to take power
• November 6 Bolsheviks and workers’ Red Guard and sailors captured the Winter Palace
• Moscow taken by force by Bolshevik workers and had control of most of the cities in Russia
• Negotiations with Central powers resulted in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
• Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan had declared independence on Russia

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
• Brought end to the war between Russia and Germany
• 1918
• Lenin encouraged the Bolsheviks to do this so they could concentrate on the work they needed to be done in Russia

Russian Civil War
• 1918-1921
• November 1917 many groups were formed against Lenin who were known as the Whites and the Bolsheviks the Reds
• Whites led by Mannerheim and helped by the Germans
• November 13, 1917 Battle of Pulkovo
• December 20, 1917 VCHEAK (secret police force) is established
• February 10, 1918 Trotsky declares Russia in no longer part of WWI
• April 10-13 1918 Battle of Yekaterinodar
• July 25, 1918 Czech legion captures Yekaterinderg
• 23 September- 18 November Provisional All-Russian Government is created
• January 18 1919 Versailles Peace Conference but they are too busy in war to show
• 7-15 November 1920 final battle Red army wins

Stalinist Era
• Stalin appeared in 1930s-1940s
• Promoted certain aspects of Russia’s History
• Industrialization developed
• Ukraine suffered under Stalin’s force Collectivization
• Policies brought starvation especially in 1932-1933
• Millions had died from starvation and Ukrainians moved to Moscow for work

WWII (Soviet Union)
• 1939-1945
• Non-Aggression Pact with Germany allowed them to expand their military influence
• September 18,1934 Russia joins League of Nations
• Winter 1939 Russia invaded Finland and the League of Nations excluded them from the international community
• December 18, 1940 Hitler signed Directive 21 which was to invade Russia and Germany marched into Russia June 22, 1941
• Slovakia, Finland, and Hungary declare war on Russia
• September 19, 1941 Germans occupied Kiev (20 km away from Moscow)
• 1944 Russians trap German in Stalingrad
• 1945 Russians defeat Germans
• Russia emerges as one of the strongest world powers including the U.S.

Cold War
• Rivalry between USSR and the U.S.
• Mutual mistrust began in 1917 when U.S. refused to recognize the Bolshevik government and Stalin didn’t like how the U.S. and Great Britain wouldn’t share their nuclear weapons with the Soviet Union
• He also was angered about how the USSR didn’t receive post war relief loans
• Cold War had a huge impact on the U.S. economically, socially, and politically
• Countries indirectly fought in “proxy wars”
• Soviet Union collapses 1991 ends Cold War

Yuri Gagarin
• April 12, 1961 Yuri Gagarin, Russian astronaut, became the first man in space
• 108 minute orbital flight in Vostok 1

Invasion of Afghanistan
• December 1979 Russian troops came to Afghanistan and supported the Afghan against the anticommunist Muslims during the Afghan War
• Afghanistan Muslims joined Mujahdeen to overthrow the Amin (the prime minister) government
• Russians trying to maintain the power of the Amin government
• December 27, 1979 Russians shot Amin and was replaced by Babrak Kamal and he needed the support of Russia’s military to stay in power
• Mikhail Gorbachev removed Russia from Afghanistan
• Afghanistan was debilitating Russia’s weak economy

Chernobyl Disaster
• April 26, 1986 a nuclear power plant near Chernobyl , Ukraine exploded releasing 100+ times radiation of bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
• 31 people died after explosion
• 1000+ died from long term effects of the radiation
• This happened because a few minutes before the explosion the power of the reactor dropped and the operators tried to make up for the loss of power and the reactor went out of control
• Explosion: 1:23 AM

Collapse of the USSR
• Mikhail Gorbachev took over government when he saw the economy was in bad shape
• 2 major reforms: Glasnost (gave people freedom of speech but allowed people to declare independence) and Perestroika (reconstruct Soviet economy but people were used to government doing everything them)
• States declare independence
• Gorbachev became too sick to govern and military could not help the people
• Soviet Union dissolved
• Marked the end of the Cold War
• The Soviet Union breaks up into 15 independent republics

Peter the Great (1672-1725)
Reigned: 1682-1725
Helped Russia be considered an Eastern European state
Centralized the government
Modernized the army
Created a navy
Domestic policy
changed religion
Moved capital to St.Petersburg
Died: 1725
The Decembrists
military officials revolted against Tsar Nicholas I
didn't like his conservative views
initiated censorship
nationalism developed
led to racism
The Great Reforms in the mid 1800s
Initiated by Alexander II
Emancipation of the Serfs- February 19, 1861
free slaves
Divided into:
Local government reform
Education Reform
Judicial reform
Military reform
Expression reform
Full transcript