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Copy of Nazi Domestic Policy - How Hitler maintained control in Germany
Transcript of Copy of Nazi Domestic Policy - How Hitler maintained control in Germany
Women Opposition- 30th january 1933 - Hitler was Chancellor. He was in a position to increase his power EVEN MORE. Perfect oppurtunity - 28th February 1933 -Reichstag Fire enabled Hitler to scare-monger and concince Hindenburg it was a Communist plot agains tthe country! - Emergency Decree was passed.
23rd March 1933 ENABLING ACT Hitler could pass laws INDEPENDENTLY of the Reichstag for 4 years. 14th July 1933
The law against the Formation of Parties - declared the Nazi party the ONLY POLITICAL PARTY in Germany. All other political parties were BANNED and their leaders put in prison. OY JEW -Using the powers granted to him after the Reichstag fire, Hitler BANNED his greatest rivals - the COMMUNIST PARTY;
- He had their 81 officials arrested and jailed;
-All other political parties were banned or dissolved themselves;
-LEGALLY no-one could challenge the Nazis, some chose to flee abroad to do so. One People
One Leader It was almost impossible for political opponents to organise any REAL RESISTANCE to the Nazis;
-Any that had not been killed or sent to concentration camps were forced to go underground.
-PROBLEM = Opponents were divided and small in numbers and did not work together to produce a real threat. Nazi party members, however, got the best jobs, better houses and special privileges.
Many businessmen joined the Nazi Party purely to get orders for their businesses.
This is simply ways he scared the German people into NOT REACTING AGAINST HIM...and....
the ways he ensured German people WANTED HIM TO BE IN CHARGE. REMEMBER CARROT AND STICK! Removal of Opposition from within.... Night of the Long Knives 30th June, 1934 Hitler used his dictatorial powers to eliminate all opposition in the SA. Got rid of ERNST ROHM and 400 of his men. This ensured that the German Army would be loyal to Hitler and showed that even Nazi supporters were not safe if Hitler doubted their ABSOLUTE loyalty. -General von Blomberg, the Minister of Defence was delighted - he ensured the amry publicly thanked Hitler for his actions;
-August 1934 all soldiers signed an oath of loyalty to Hitler - HE NOW HAD CONTROL OF THE ARMY -President Hindenburg died;
-Rohm (Head of SA) was dead;
-Hitler had the oath of loyalty from the army;
-His hold on power was secure. 2nd August 1934 -'People were too afraid to stand up to the Nazi's' -'Speak through a flower'
-Estimated 1.2 million Germans passed through concentration camps -Political prisoners could be held indefinately in 'protective custody' -Nazi storm trooper - 'Everyone is arresting everyone else. Everyone is threatening everyone else with Dacahu...'
-Opponents of the regime would generally spend 1 brutal year in a concentration camp and be released. Gestapo
-In 1934 the Gestapo was brought under control of the SS and HIMMLER.
-Gestapo had around 40,000 members but it has been estimated that there may have been around 160,000 agents and informers. Gestapo The Cult of the Fuhrer Bloomberg, the Minister of Defence used to say that a kind word from Hitler would bring 'tears to his eyes' and that a handshake from him would cure him of colds. Gestapo The Nazis took over local government and the police.
The Nazis started to replace anti-Nazi teachers and University professors.
Hitler set up the Gestapo (the secret police) and encouraged Germans to report opponents and 'grumblers'.
Tens of thousands of Jews, Communists, Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, gypsies, homosexuals, alcoholics and prostitutes were arrested and sent to concentration camps for 'crimes' as small as writing anti-Nazi graffiti, possessing a banned book, or saying that business was bad. The Nazis used 'fear and horror' against anyone who dissapoved of their regime: that while the Gestapo helped keep control through fear, many germans welcomed such methods after years of uncertainty and instability under the Weimar republic. IT IS IMPORTANT to remember The Gestapo (German pronounciation: ;abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei, 'Secret State Police') The law stated that 'as long as they were carrying out the will of the Party, they were acting legally'. Important Point -Even though the Nazis had huge support in Germany in the 1930s there were still approximately 17 million germans who had not voted for them.
-WHY WOULD THIS GIVE HITLER A CAUSE FOR CONCERN?
-Local Police were tasked with creating lists of anyone they felt to be 'untrustworthy' and would pass them on to the Gestapo. Police in Nazi Germany could arrest people on suspicion that they were about to do wrong. -It was the treatment following arrest that persuaded many to swallow their morals and accept Nazi rule.... http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/worldwar2/theatres-of-war/western-europe/investigation/occupation/sources/docs/3/enlarge.htm Important Note There were SOME individuals and groups that stood up to the Nazis: Edelweiss Pirates
Eternal War on the Hitler Youth -Methods included aniti-Nazi graffiti, beating up Hitler Youth, listening to foreign music.
The 'White Rose' - led by Sophie Scholl who was beheaded by guillotine for handing out anti-Nazi leaflets at Munich University.
Hitler banned all Trade Unions on 2 May 1933. Their offices were clothes, their money confiscated, and their leaders put in prison.
Communists were put into concentration camps or killed.
Many protestant pastors such as Dietrich Bonhoffer were persecuted and executed. Each block of flats had a 'staircase ruler' who reported grumblers to the police - they were arrested and either murdered, or sent to concentration camps.
Children were encouraged to report their parents to the Gestapo if they criticized Hitler or the Nazi party. Youth- A Nazi Education The Nazis replaced anti-Nazi teachers and university proffessors;
School lessons included hidden indoctrination e.g - requiring children to calcuate how much mentally disabled people cost the state, or to criticize the racial features of Jewish people;
German boys were required to attend the Hitler Youth, which mixed exciting activities, war games and Nazi indoctrination;
German girls went to the BDM and learned how to be good mothers, and to love Hitler.
All teachers were examined by Nazis;
Any teacher considered disloyal was sacked.
Many attended classes during school holidays in which the Nazi curriculum was spelled out;
97% of all teachers joined the Nazi Teachers' Association;
All teachers had to be careful about what they said as children were encouraged to inform the authorities if a teacher said something that did not fit in with the Nazi's curriculum for schools.
Subjects underwent a major change in schools. Some of the most affected were History and Biology. History was based on the glory of Germany - a nationalistic approach was compulsory;
The German defeat in 1918 was explained as the work of Jewish and Marxist spied who has weakened the system from within;
The Treaty of Versailles was the work of nations jealous of Germany's might and power;
Hyperinflation of 1923 was the work of Jewish saboteurs;
The national resurgence which started was all the work of Hitler.
Hitler pretended that he loved children;
Children were, after all, the future of the nation;
In reality they were simply another tool to ensure his long-term support in Germany.
Hitler Youth 1933 its membership stood at 100,000;
After Hitler came to power, all other youth movements were abolished and as a result the Hitler Youth grew quickly.
1936, the figure stood at 4 million members;
1936, it became all compulsory to join the Hitler Youth.
Hitlers Youth for Girls The Bund Deutscher Madel (BDM) taught young girls of their future in society - to mother more germans;
They emphasized values of obidience, self-control, and discipline.
They taught women how to be 'good' Nazi wives and mothers and how to raise children that will also embody these ideals. Jobs-
The Nazi 'Economic Miracle' -When Hitler took power in 1933 unemployment stood at 6million; almost half the total German workforce;
-The Nazi propaganda machine under Goebbels led Germany and the world to believe that Hitler had accomplished an unparalleled miracle of economic recovery.... Unemployment in Germany Total January 1933 - 6 million
January 1934 - 3.3 million
January 1935 - 2.9 million
January 1936 - 2.5 million
January 1937 - 1.8 million
January 1938 - 1.0 million
January 1939 - 302,000
Women were not included in the statistics. So any women unemployed during Nazi rule did not exist as far as the statistics were concerned. All was not as it seemed... After the 1935 Nuremburg Laws, Jews lost their citizenship and were not included in the statistics. Even though many lost their jobs when Hitler came to power. The unemployed were given a simple choice - do any work the government gave to you OR be classed as workshy and put in a concetration camp. Getting unemployment figures to be so low was viewed by many as a Nazi book-keeping trick... Conscription was brought in 1935 - many young men were taken off unemployment statistics when they did their time in the army...
By 1939 the army was 1.4 million in size...many factories were built and weapons made which reduced unemployment even more...
Unemployment could not have failed to fall with such measures in place... BUT people were too scared to speak out.... But there can be no doubt that jobs were created! Economy Hitler banned all Trade unions on 2 May 1933. Their offices were closed, their money confiscated, and their leaders put in prison. Arbeitsfront (German Labour Front) - Set up to 'protect' those in work;
- Contracts drawn up under the Weimar Republic were ripped up and rewritten;
- Employers could demand more of their workers...
- .....But workers enjoyed increased security at work and benefits;
- Membership was voluntary in theory, but anyone not a member would struggle to find a job without being a member.
In a bid for full employment government spending rose, 1932 - 38 from about 5 billion to 30 billion marks.
The GLF increased the number of hours worked from 60 to 72 per week (including overtime)
Strikes were outlawed.
The average factory worker was earning 10 times more than those on dole money and a few complained...
though, as always, to do would put you at risk.
Autarky (...to be self-sufficient) Autarky means economic self sufficiency. This means that a country produces enough goods of its own so that it doesnt have to import goods (especially raw materials - coal, oil, iron ore) from other countries. Hitler wanted to acheive autarky so that if war came Germany would not be dependent on imports. The new plan of 1934 stopped imports and subsidised industry;
Production rose, especially of oil, steel, coal and explosives.
In 1936, Goering was put in charge. His four year plan proposed to get the army and industry ready for war in four years.
Employers were happy when workers were well disciplined.
BUT businesses were strictly controlled; they could be told to make something different/were not allowed to raise wages/workers could be sent to other factories.
Goering said: 'Iron makes an empire strong; butter only makes people fat'.
Strength Through Joy (Kraft Durch Freude (KdF)) -A large, state ciontrolled leisure organisation in Nazi Germany
-Wages were decided by the German Labor Front;
- Compulsory deductions were made for tax and for the Strength Through Joy Programme.
- Aimed to provide affordable concerts, plays, libraries, day-trips, holidays to the masses;
- Aimed to make middle-class activities affordable to the masses.
- In 1938 an estimated 180,000 people went on cruises to places such as Maderia and the Norweigan fjords';
- Others were given free holidays in Germany;
- By 1934, over 2 million Germans had participated on a KdF trip;
- By 1939, the reported numbers lay around 25 million people.
What life was like under the Nazis Full employment (work programmes/strength through joy) gave prosperity and financial security - many observers stated that there seemed to be no poverty in Germany,
Law and order (few people locked their doors)
Autobahns improved transport,
frequent ceremonies, rallies, colour and excitement
Nazi propaganda gave people hope
Nazi racial philosophy gave people self-belief
Trust in Adolf Hitler gave a sense of security (one German woman told the American reporter Nora Wall: 'He is my mother and my father.; He keeps me safe from all harm.')
There were few drawbacks:
Wages fell, and strikers could be shot - the Nazis worked closely witht he businessmen to make sure that the workforce were as controlled as possible.
Loss of personal freedoms (eg freedom of speech)
All culture had to be German - eg music had to be Beethoven or Wagner or German folk songs - or Nazi - eg all actors had to be members of the Nazi party/ only books by approved authors could be read.