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Phonological Awareness and Phonics

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Gabrielle Garnier

on 29 September 2013

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Transcript of Phonological Awareness and Phonics

Phonological Awareness and Phonics

Phonemic Awareness
Phonemic awareness is the oral manipulation of sound (Tompkins, p.374).
Example: a child identifies that the word dog begins with the /d/ sound
Phonemic Awareness provides the foundation for phonics and spelling (Tompkins, p.96).
Development of Phonological Awareness
Phonological awareness is the umbrella term for a range of knowledge about speech sounds, such as syllables, rhyme, and alliteration (Bear et al., 106).
Phonological awareness develops gradually over time.
Activities that Promote Phonological Awareness
By: Gabrielle Garnier
Development of Phonological Awareness continued
Begins with students understanding large chunks of sounds
For example, a child will be aware of syllables and words that rhyme
Once students master chunks of sounds, they gradually become aware of smaller parts of speech.
At this stage, students will become aware of the individual sounds that make up words.
Play the change-the-name game
For this game, the teacher would say a student's name, but omit the first sound in the student's name. For example, I would say -abe' instead of Gabe'. Once I say the changed name, the students would have to guess who I am talking about.
Once students master this level, the teacher can replace the first sound in the students' name with a different sound. For example, I would say Shabe' instead of Gabe'.
The change-the-name game helps students work on blending sounds. Students would work towards blending more complex sounds as they became comfortable with the activity.
A word sort is another activity that can be used to promote phonological awareness with students.
I would have different words on cards in a stack, and the students would have to sort the cards based on the ending sounds of the words.
The word sort would expose students to words that rhyme.
Activities that Promote Phonological Awareness
Activities that Promote Phonological Awareness
(Word Sort, 2012)
Writing is not used a lot when teaching students about phonological awareness.
To promote phonological awareness, I may do an interactive writing with students.
I would read a book to the students, and then, together, we would work to write a sentence about the book.
I would have the students sound out the words, come up to the board, and write a letter they did know. After the students wrote all the letters they recognized, I would go back and sound words out and work with the students to fill in the rest of the letters.
Through this activity, your children will be working on their high-frequency words, spelling skills, and phonological awareness.
Phonological Development Continuum
The first level is listening.
Students listen first to learn how to make the sounds.
The next level is rhyme and alliteration.
In this level, students begin to break down chunks of a word. Students learn the endings of words to learn about words that rhyme.
The third level is sentence segmentation.
At this level, students begin to break down sentences and count words.
The Fourth level is learning syllables.
Students break down words into the syllables that make up the word.
The fifth level is onsets and rimes.
Students begin to learn to segment the endings and beginnings of words.
For example: the rime would be -ag in the word tag
the onset of the word slide would be sl-
The last level is learning phonemes.
Phonemes are the smallest unit of speech.
Phonological Awareness Informal Assessment
An Informal assessment I may use with you child is a sound blending game.
For this game, I would say words and have your child break down the word into the words' different sounds.
The students would put the individual sound cards in boxes to identify the first, middle, and last sound.
Once your child identifies the sounds in the original word I gave them, I can have your child change one sound in the word to make a new word.
For example, the original word I might use is dog. After your child has this word broken down into the three individual sounds, I would have your child change the first sound to make the word log.
This informal assessment would allow me to make sure your child is on pace with the class in regards to identifying individual sounds and allow me to work with them on rhyming.
Phonological Awareness Formal Assessment
One formal assessment I may do with your child is a rhyme assessment.
I would give this assessment in two parts.
First, I would give your child two words and have them tell me if the two words rhymed or not.
For example, I could say "duck, buck," and your child would have to tell me if the two words rhyme.
The second step to this assessment is to give your child two words that do rhyme and have your child give me a third word that rhymes with the first two words.
For example, I could say "duck, buck," and your child could give me the word luck and be correct.
(Michigan Department of Education Literacy Committee, 2001)
Language Differences
For English Language Learners, teachers should be aware of the similarities and differences in sounds between English and the child's native language.
Teachers should emphasize sounds that are similar in English to sounds in the child's native language and then, gradually work towards working with sounds that are very different.
"Phonemic awareness is a common underlying linguistic ability that transfers from one language to another" (Tompkins, p.105).
This quote suggests that once a child learns phonemic awareness, they should be able to understand it in other languages.
Although, phonemic awareness is only one part of phonological awareness, having the background knowledge can help a student when learning other parts of phonological awareness.
Activities that help English Language Learners are singing songs and playing language games.
Phonics Terms
Words: A unit of meaning
example: A, Dog, Sit
Syllable: units of spoken language that consist of a vowel that may be preceded and/or followed by several consonants
Example: ho-tel, po-em, beau-ti-ful
Onset: the initial consonant sound of a single syllable or word
example: for the word sun the /s/ sound is the onset
Rime: composed of the vowel and any following consonants within a syllable.
example: for the word tag, -ag would be the the rime.
Phoneme: the smallest unit of speech that distinguishes one word from another.
example: the g in gas and the h in has distinguish the words from each other
(Bear et. al., p.411-414)
Layers of Orthography
Phonics Activities: Oral language
Phonics Activities: writing
I would do a Word Ladder with my students.
A word ladder is a game where students change one word into another through a series of steps.
For each step, the student will alter one letter in the word.
Usually the first word and the last word of the ladder are related.
For example, students would start with the word fall and end with the word down.
In my classroom, I would have my students do this activity on a white board or on a piece of paper to help them work on their hand-writing while practicing their phonics.
Phonics Activities: Sorting
Word sorts are a great way to help students recognize different phonics patterns.
A word sort using the beginning and ending sounds ch/ tch/ wh help students recognize different phonics patterns.
Phonics Assessment
References
Orthography is the writing system of a language- specifically, the correct sequence of letters, characters, or symbols
There are three layers or Orthography are Alphabet, Pattern, and Meaning.
Alphabet Stage
Students in this stage rely on the sound embedded in the names of the letters to represent the sounds they are trying to represent
Works well for most consonants, but does not work well for vowels
Meaning Stage
In this stage students realize that letter can represent meaning directly.
The units of meaning are called morphemes.
Students learn prefixes, suffixes, and root words in this stage.
Pattern Stage
In this stage, students recognize the different patterns that make up words.
For example, students recognize the CVC pattern words follow. CVC stands for consonant vowel consonant, and an example of a word that follows this pattern is Sat.
Students also recognize the silent E during this stage.
The silent E makes the other vowel in the word say its' name. For example, the word cape has the silent E in it. The silent E in cape makes the A say its' name in the word.
Phonics is the systematic relationship between letters and sounds.
An oral language phonics activity I would do would be the Toss and Blend: Carnival Game.
For this game, your student would write different beginning blends on the inside lip of each cup.
In the picture below, they used tw-, qu-, ch-, bl-, sh-.
Once the cups are made and placed on the floor, students will toss coins into the cups.
The student then thinks of a word that starts with the sound associated with the cup that the chip landed in.
For example, if the chip lands in the bl- cup then the student would need to come up with a word that begins with the bl- sound. Blue or black would be correct for this cup.
Example:
cat
cot
dot
dog
(Danyali, 2013)
Ch words
chest
chin
bench
-tch words
catch
latch
patch
batch
wh- words
when
whale
Formal Assessment: a data driven test that compares a student to peers in his/her class, county, state, or country.
A formal assessment I may give in my class to test a child on phonics may be The Tile Test.
The Tile Test assesses a child's phonics knowledge by having him manipulate letter tiles to make words, and then the teacher makes words with the tiles that the students have to read.
I would use this test because the test is completely hands-on. A lot of students work better when they can learn information through hands-on activities. If a students learns better this way, then he may perform better on a test that is hands-on and stay engaged in the test.
Phonics Assessment
Informal Test: A performance driven test examining how well the students are understanding the material being taught
Informal testing guides instruction because the results of the tests can show what information students understood and what information students did not understand. Then, a teacher can go back and make sure students understand all information. Informal testing helps a teacher meet the needs of the students.
An informal assessment I may do with a student would be to have them look at letters and tell me the sound that the letter makes. This technique would tell me if the student understands the sound-name relationship for each letter. I can also tell how comfortable a student is with the sounds. If the student says the sound quickly, then I know it is time to advance, but if a student hesitates, I know that I could give him or her a bit more practice.
Bear, D., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., Johnson, F., (2012). Words their way: Word study for
phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Danyali, A. (July 3, 2013). Toss and blend: A carnival game.
Retrieved from http://www.education.com/activity/article/tossandblend_kindergarten/
Michigan Department of Education Early Literacy Committee.
(2001). Michigan literacy progress profile. Lansing, MI: Department of Education.
Tompkins, G. (2011). Literacy in the early grades. Boston,
MA: Pearson.
Word Sort [Photograph]. (2012). Retrieved September 22,
2013, from: http://conversationsinliteracy.blogspot.com/2012/08/problem-solved.html



These activities are similar to what a teacher would do with a regular student, except that the teacher would emphasize the pronunciation of the sounds with the ELL student.
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