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Sociology Chapter 2: Culture

Essentials of Sociology
by

Sonya Curry

on 29 April 2013

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Transcript of Sociology Chapter 2: Culture

How much do you know about culture and intolerance toward others? When I ask each question,answer TRUE or FALSE on your sheet. Keep track to see how many you get right! Why Culture? "You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view . . . until you climb into his skin and walk around in it."
To Kill a Mockingbird Chapter 2 Work in pairs to define the following terms:

Culture
Nature
Nurture
Instinct
Ethnocentricism
Cultural Relativism
Values
Norms
Taboos Sociology: Culture Chapter 2

Culture is the
iceburg of humanity Culture, everywhere??
For each item on the list of American Values, come up with an example. HINT: Think of your favorite TV shows and Movies
What part does culture play in shaping individuals?
What are the essential components of culture? Culture is important in understanding our changing world, and interacting with the other humans in it. Canadians generally see themselves as tolerant of other cultures and intolerant of racism In recent years, the number of reported attacks in America against persons because of their race, religion, or ethnic origin has increased. It is illegal to be a member of a racist organization. Individuals can do very little to reduce or eliminate intolerance in society As the rate of immigration to America has increased in recent years, anti-immigrant feelings have risen. The majority of hate crimes in America are directed against racial minorities. Incidents of Violence targeted toward African-Americans and Muslims have declined in recent years. Communities with greater proportions of visible-minority immigrants are generally more tolerant of racial and ethnic differences. It is illegal to disseminate hate literature on the internet. A recent national survey found that the majority of respondents accept the concept of American as a multicultral "Melting Pot". What is Boonaa saying about culture and intolerance?

Revisit the question: What part does culture play in shaping individuals?

Does culture create stereotypes and racism? Or are these inherent qualities in human nature? Four Corner Activity Vote on the position that most describes your opinion, be prepared to defend your answer! - Culture is essential for our individual survival and communication with others. - Culture is not fundamental for the survival of societies . - In order to survive, societies need rules about civility and tolerance toward others. - Human nature is to be intolerant of differences. It is an instinct to be wary of other cultures. Human culture is an instinct. How do values and norms affect social interaction?

Language is an important political and social issue globally in any pluralistic or
multicultural society. Why?

Material Culture Nonmaterial Culture Material culture consists of the physical or tangible creations that members of a society make, use, and share. Nonmaterial culture consists of the abstract or intangible human creations of society that influence people's behavior. Examples: Resources
Clothes (Brands- Types)
Technology
Types of Shelter Examples: Language
Beliefs
Traditions
Family Patterns Material Culture and Nonmaterial Culture Material Nonmaterial Cultural Universals Cultural Universals are customs and practices that occur across all societies. Antropologist George Murdock compiled a list of over 70 similarities among all cultures. These included the importance of appearance, sports and recreational activities, and the social institution of the family. Cultural universals are present in all cultures, but their specific forms vary from one group to another. Components of
Culture Symbols Language Norms Values Introduction to the Components of Culture A symbol is anything that can meaningfully represent something else. For example: A Dove for peace or giving a bad driver the middle finger. All Smybolic of another meaning. Language is a set of symbols that express ideas and enable people to think and communicate with one another.

It allows us to share our experiences, feelings, and knowledge with others. It can also transmit cultures. Are collective ideas about what is right or what is wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture.

Typically come in pairs of a positive value and a negative value.

For example: Being Hardworking as opposed to lazy. Norms are established rules of behavior or standards of conduct. They help to delegate how we should act in a certain situation, and give us specific behavioral expectations. For example: It is an established norm to wear clothes when
out in public, or to open a door for someone who has their
hands full. In Depth Symbols A symbol is anything that can meaningfully represent something else. Example Focus Language Verbal or spoken language and non verbal language (written or gestured) help us describe reality. It is one of our most human attributes. To share our experiences feelings and knowledge with others. Language can be a universal connector of communication, but it can also be used to create a separate feeling of solidarity. It allows people to distinguish themselves from outsiders, and maintain group boundaries. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis- it is suggested that language does not only express our thoughts, and perceptions, but that it also influences our perception of reality.

For example, looking at the differences between aboriginal and canadian language. Since they did not have possessive language, they did not have the reality of owning things. Such as land, or material objects. Do you agree?
Does language really shape our reality? Many sociologists think that language has many subtle meanings and that the words used by people reflect their central concerns. But language influences our behavior and interpretation of social reality but does not determine it. Language and Gender Gender in language has been debated and studied extensively in recent years, and greater awareness and some changes have been the result. For example, the transfer of mailman, to mail person.
Many scholars suggest that a more inclusive language is needed to develop a more inclusive and equitable society. Language, Race and Ethnicity Language may create and reinforce our perceptions about race and ethnicity by transmitting preconceived ideas about the superiority of one category of people over another.

Words are frequently used to create or reinforce perceptions of a group. For example the use of the term ‘savages’ or ‘red skinned’ or ‘Indian’ to describe Native indigenous peoples. http://www.cbc.ca/archives/categories/society/education/a-lost-heritage-canadas-residential-schools/for-survivors-the-hurt-comes-back.html Values Values are collective ideas about what is right and wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture. Value Contradictions Values that conflict with one another or are mutually exclusive. Ideal Versus Real Culture Ideal :The values and standards of behavior that people in a society profess to hold. Real: refers to the values and standards of behavior that people actually follow. Norms Cultural Change Cultures do not often remain static, especially when faced with communication from other cultures.
Societies continually experience change on both material and non-material levels.
Not all parts of a culture change at the same time or pace. Cultural Diversity Write down the following definitions.

Homogeneous societies: includes people who share a common culture and are typically from similar school, religious, political, and economic backgrounds. A community of a single culture

Heterogeneous societies: includes people who are dissimilar in regard to social characteristics such as nationality, race, ethnicity, class, occupation, and education. A community of many cultures. A subculture is a group of people who share a distinctive set of cultural beliefs and behaviors that differ in some significant way from that of the larger society. A counterculture is a group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms and seeks alternative lifestyles. Definitions Culture Shock- the disorientation that people feel when they encounter cultures radically different from their own, and believe they cannot depend on their own taken-for-granted assumptions about life.

Ethnocentrism- the tendency to regard one’s own culture and group as the standard, and thus superior, wheras all other group are seen as inferior.

Cultural Relativism - the belief that the behaviors and customs of any culture must be viewed and analyzed by the culture’s own standards. High Culture: consists of classical music, opera, ballet, live theater, and other activities usually patronized by elite audiences, composed primarily of members of the upper middle and upper classes, who have time, money, and knowledge assumed to be necessary for its appreciation. Cultural capital: views high culture as a device used by the dominant class to exclude the subordinate classes. High Culture, and Popular Culture Popular Culture: consists of activities, products and services that are assumed to appeal primarily to members of the middle and working classes. These can include rock concerts, soap operas, the internet, etc. Forms of Popular Culture:
Fad: a temporary but widely copied activity followed enthusiastically by large numbers of people. Most fads are short-lived novelties. Core American Values

In 1970 Robin Williams identified core American Values. They were:

Equal Opportunity
Achievement and Success
Material Comfort
Activity and Work
Practicality and Efficiency
Progress
Science
Democracy and Enterprise
Freedom




From Macionis, John J. 2005. Sociology. 10th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 66. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING: the expectations, or rules of behavior, that develop to reflect and enforce values
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