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World War I

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Courtney Dorodchi

on 26 October 2015

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Transcript of World War I

Budapest
San
Francisco

WORLD WAR I
1914-(1917)-1918
Where in the World?
Causes of WWI - "M.A.N.I.A."
M
A
N
I
A

ilitarism
lliances
ationalism
mperialism
ssassination
MILITARISM
1910-1914 Increase in Defense
(Military) Spending
France- 10% increase

Britain- 13% increase

Russia- 39% increase

Germany- 73% increase
GERMANY
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
ITALY
BRITAIN
FRANCE
RUSSIA
The Spark & Nationalism
THE SPARK!!!!!
The 2nd "A" in "MANIA"...
"A Story that Matters"
PAGE 716 IN YOUR TEXTBOOK
"Voices of War"
Militarism
Policy of building up a
strong military
to prepare for war
Alliances
Agreements between nations to provide aid & protect one another
Nationalism
Extreme pride in one's country
Imperialism
Europe competed
for colonies
Assassination
Led to competition

Not all ethnic groups had become nations

Ex. Slavic minorities in Austria-Hungary
"Looking Back to See Ahead"
Page 712-713
The Serbian Problem
ASSASSINATION Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Heir to Austro-Hungarian throne
Visiting Sarajevo- "Goodwill Tour"
"Black Hand" - Serbian terrorist organization
Gavrilo Princip
Wanted SERBIA free from AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
Assassinated the Archduke and his wife

June 28, 1914
DOMINO EFFECT that led to WAR
1. Austria blamed Serbia for Ferdinand's death and
DECLARED WAR ON SERBIA
2. Germany pledged their support for Austria-Hungary
3. Russia pledged their support for Serbia...begin to mobilize
4. Germany warned Russian to halt mobilization. Russia ignores...
5. Germany
DECLARES WAR ON RUSSIA


6. France pledged their support for Russia


7. Germany
DECLARES WAR ON FRANCE
(as part of the "Schlieffen Plan")


8. Germany invades Belgium on the way to France


9. Great Britain supports Belgium (neutrality) and
DECLARES WAR ON GERMANY
August 4th, 1914


All great powers of Europe were at WAR!
Britain
France
Russia
Germany
Austria-Hungary
Ottoman
Turkey
The BUILD UP of a nation's armed forces.
European countries are COMPETING for the best military
Always trying to "one up" each other
"The Great War"
"There are millions!!
Some are huge fellows,
nearly as big as cats.
Several of our men were
awakened to find a RAT
snuggling down under the
blanket alongside them!"
ALLIANCES ACTIVATED!
Thought the war would be finished by Christmas...
War Plans
German "Schlieffen Plan"
Goal:
Avoid a Two-Front War
Crush France first and QUICKLY
Focus on Russia
EPIC FAIL!
Russia mobilized faster than expected

German troops cannot carry out full plan

Germans unable to take Paris

Two-Front War
Western and Eastern
Schlieffen Fails...Won't Be Home for Christmas
Details of the War
Germans stopped at Battle of Marne (France)

Germans vs. Russians at Battle of Tannenberg (Germany wins)

Austria-Hungary not doing well

Italy abandoned Triple Alliance (Germany, A-H, Turkey)

Serbia eliminated
STALEMATE
Trench Warfare
Trenches became very elaborate

Protected by barbed wire

"Soften" the troops
"Breakthrough" across enemy lines
NOT a war of great movement
Wear the other guys out, constant attacks and heavy losses
NEW WEAPONS
WHAT'S GOING ON IN EUROPE BEFORE
WORLD WAR I?
Glorifying military power
Keep standing army
"Got Your Back"
Keep Peace?
All about COMPETITION in Europe
WHY?
Tangled web that drags all of Europe into war
Causes
Competition and
TeNsIoN!!!!
Two-Power Standard
England's policy

British Navy will always be stronger than any 2 other world navies COMBINED
"Duke it out" with Germany
The
SPARK
that leads to WWI
Austria-Hungary
and
Russia
competing for
Balkan states
= tension

Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia
...made it their own
Bosnia & Serbia dislike this

They want
Freedom!!!
...for Serbia!
The Serbian Problem
I have a killer mustache!
War now bigger and more difficult than expected
The Lusitania
The Zimmermann Telegram
Nov. 1914 neither side could gain advantage, so "dug in" for 3 yrs.
Goal: get enemy out of trench to engage (fight) or retreat!
Trenches served as Headquarters- elaborate
AWFUL living conditions!
How are wars fought today?
Machine Gun
Rapid Fire= "Mow 'em Down"
3 of 4 deaths caused by machine gun
Made "No Man's Land" almost suicidal
Mustard Gas
Lethal gas- disablement or death
Point: "Soften up" trenches
UH-OH! The wind!
Change in wind direction, could "gas" your own side
Destroying DNA & liquefies tissue
SMARTBOARD MAP!
Why does this matter?
War becomes more and more tragic/devastating with technology...
The Tank
Revolutionary: for transportation (moving soldiers) and attacking enemy trenches...
Primitive- needed improvements
COULD CRUSH BARBED WIRE!!!!
Why is this invention important?
Aircraft & Zeppelins
Never used in war before WWI
First used for SPYING
Then used as defense
"DOGFIGHTS!!"
- plane versus plane aerial (in the sky) combat
PLANES
ZEPPELIN
Used for defense and reconnaissance
Germans stopped using them- too dangerous expensive!
SUBMARINE
German "U-Boat" = "unterseeboot"
Germany's most effective weapon
UNITED
STATES

ENTRY
1. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

Four Reasons for US Entry:
2. Zimmermann Telegram
Restricted Warfare- warning before torpedo
Unrestricted- Just blow them up :(
Not just military vessels
Led to development of gas mask
Naval war between Britain and Germany- attacks and blockades
German U-Boats
UNRESTRICTED
warfare = both military and civilian vessels
May 7th, 1915
- British passenger ship "Lusitania" torpedoed and sunk by German U-Boat
1100 civilian casualties
About 100 = American
German Foreign Minister-Arthur Zimmermann
Sent message to German ambassador in Mexico
Message:
Germany will give some US land to
Mexico if the join the Germans
U.S.A. entered war April 6, 1917
ANTI-GERMAN SENTIMENT!!!!
End of Stalemate
High casualties led to stalemate
US Troops BOOSTED morale of Allied soldiers (4th Quarter Scenario)
1918-
Allies break German lines
and push them back...getting closer to victory
Germany retreats
, other
Central Powers eventually quit
The FAT LADY has sung...
Germany surrenders!!
November 11, 1918
sign Armistice= agreement to stop fighting, NOT a TREATY
The Aftermath...
37 MILLION DEAD! :(
10 million military
7 million citizens
20 million wounded
2 million dead from disease
Spanish Influenza- 1918
Amputees
"Half Men"
37 million =
NYC, Philly, LA, Chicago, Boston, Washington D.C., and Miami
TIMES TWO!!
Bust Up the Map
Angered United States!
Propaganda to
enter war...
1914
1918
Bust Up the Map, continued...
Austria-Hungary breaks up into...
Austria
Hungary
Czechoslovakia
Serbia united with South Slavs and formed...
Yugoslavia
"
We heard
strange
throbbing
noises
, and
lumbering slowly
towards us came three huge
MECHANICAL MONSTERS
such as we had never seen before. My first impression was that they looked ready to topple on their noses, but their tails and the two little wheels at the back held them down and kept them level...the moved to the enemy trench,
frightening the Germans out of their wits
and making them scuttle
like frightened rabbits."

- Eyewitness to History, John Carey, ed., 1987




The tank played a role in bringing an end to World War I and foreshadowed a new kind of warfare.
Peace Settlements
January 1919- victorious Allied nations meet in Paris for final and official settlement
President Woodrow Wilson's
"FOURTEEN POINTS"
:
Proposal for true and lasting peace
Wanted:
to make peace agreements openly rather than using secret diplomacy
to reduce armaments (military force or weapons)
to ensure self-determination (right of each people to have its own nation)
to create a "general association of nations"
to create Democratic governments
The Treaty of Versailles
Paris Peace Conference
Great Britain:
Wanted to
make the Germans pay
for this dreadful war
David Lloyd George
Georges Clemenceau (France)
(Britain)
France:
Worried about national security
Wanted
revenge
and security against future German aggression
Wanted
Germany stripped of all weapons
Germans must
pay "reparations"
- $$ to cover war costs
Paris Peace Conference
United States
France
Great Britain
Italy
Included:
Excluded:
Germany
The "Big Three" made most of the decisions:
Peace Settlement
Germans considered it harsh
Article 231 "War Guilt Clause"
stated that Germany and A-H started the war
Germany was forced to pay "reparations"- $ for all the damage caused- reduce the size of its army, and lost territory.
The War's Legacy
Entire generations lost
A government's power over its citizens increased
Freedom of the press and speech were limited for national security
Germany's anger over "War Guilt Clause" will
lead to WWII...
In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.

We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.

Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields.
On a separate sheet of paper: In a paragraph (7 to 8 complete sentences) write your reaction to WORLD WAR I. Think about things like; the conditions of the trenches, the duration of the war, the sacrifice on the Home Front, the issue of the stalemate, the conditions of the treaty- who "won" and who "lost," etc.
The war became a STALEMATE: a "deadlock," neither side is making progress
The Trenches: Symbol of the Stalemate
Soldiers dug in on the Western Front,
used dark humor to lighten the strain of living in a trench.



"I've a little wet home in a trench
Where the rainstorms continually drench,
There's a dead cow close by
With her feet in towards the sky
And she gives off a terrible stench.

Underneath, in the place of a floor,
There's a mass of wet mud and some straw,
But with shells dropping there,
There's no place to compare,
With my little wet home in the trench."
War of ATTRITION:
Forces do not confront each other in direct
combat but instead aim to
WEAR THE OTHER SIDE DOWN FIRST

Isolation policy
-
US did not want to get caught up in a bunch of European alliances. Wanted to "mind their own business" and provide aid.
Woodrow Wilson
Neutrality for
the US!
British intercepted the message and told U.S.A.
We're in.
Have to make the world SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY
“Whilst asleep during the night, we were frequently awakened by rats running over us. When this happened too often for my liking, I would lie on my back and wait for a rat to linger on my legs; then violently heave my legs upwards, throwing the rat into the air. Occasionally, I would hear a grunt when the rat landed on a fellow victim.”

(R L Venables)
Memories from the Trenches
“If you have never had trench foot described to you, I will explain. Your feet swell to two to three times their normal size and go completely dead. You can stick a bayonet into them and not feel a thing. If you are lucky enough not to lose your feet and the swelling starts to go down, it is then that the most indescribable agony begins. I have heard men cry and scream with pain and many have had to have their feet and legs amputated. I was one of the lucky ones, but one more day in that trench and it may have been too late.”

(Harry Roberts)
“We slept in our clothes and cut our hair short so that it would tuck inside our caps. Dressing simply meant putting on our boots. There were times when we had to scrape the lice off with the blunt edge of a knife and our underclothes stuck to us. “

(Elizabeth de T’Serclaes – a nurse on the front line)
German Proclamation:
The water around the British Isles are a WAR ZONE! We will sink any ship that comes through, even merchant vessels.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Sussex Pledge:
We (Germany) won't sink merchant ships...without warning...maybe (did not uphold this pledge)
American Expeditionary Forces:
"Dough Boys"
The U.S. in the War
General John J. Pershing
U.S. infantrymen
4th Quarter Scenario...
U.S. Provided
resources and renewal!
(Remember "War of Attrition")
Just because the fighting has stopped, doesn't mean this are settled...
Stop MILITARISM
Stop IMPERIALISM
Stop NATIONALISM
League of Nations
"Hall of Mirrors" in Versailles, Paris
The WAR AT HOME
The League of Nations
Germany...
...blamed for war and not allowed to join League of Nations...will be a reason for start of WWII.
1. Wilson's "General Association of Nations"
2. Multi-country mediator
3.
Goal:
to prevent another world war
(World) Peace Keeper
1. Verbal warning
2. Economic sanctions (Hit the country where it hurts...the bank account)
3. Military force...but there isn't an army to back this up
AGGRESSOR NATION
4. Major Nations Involved:
Britain and France
USA does NOT join
Epic Fail
War Industries Board:
Selective Service Act:

The Draft
Encouraged MASS PRODUCTION for war
The Armenian Genocide

Remember, HISTORY IS ABOUT HUMANS!!!
Definition:
Example #1:
Example #2:
European countries are COMPETING for the best military
Always trying to "one up" each other
ssassination

Assassination
Started World War I
The Balkans
NOTICE: These are these alliance systems, NOT the combatants (Allied Powers vs. Central Powers)
It would be similar to...
Nobody likes this, because they are NATIONALISTIC
Combatants
3.

4.
Long story short...

Serbia
and
Bosnia
are
angry
with
Austria-Hungary.
Serbia
I need 6 volunteers, please... :)
On your WWI QR Code Activity


Page 2: Assassination
The Immediate Cause
This event is considered the
"spark"
that lit the fuse to the "powder keg" of Europe. The assassination of Archduke
Franz Ferdinand
(heir to the
Austro-Hungarian
throne) by
Gavrilo Princip
(a
Serbian
nationalist, activated the
Alliance System.
Protecting our Investments


To Defend Democracy
Geneva Convention. Do countries obey today?
Enemy Trench
Your Trench
Goal=

Women in the War
African-Americans
The 369th
What questions do you have on the TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS of World War I?
Four Corners
Stand under the corner with the statement that best fits your opinion on the following question.
The corner options are: AGREE, STRONGLY AGREE, DISAGREE, STRONGLY DISAGREE.
Statement #1- The Machine Gun is the most effective weapon in terms of killing.
ON THE VERY BACK OF YOUR GRAPHIC ORGANIZER:
Other Information on Back of Graphic Organizer
1. Selected Service Act-
the draft
2. Mobilization-
to prepare and organize for war
of the economy-
War Industries Board gave President power over the economy (total war), this led to MASS PRODUCTION of war materials
of the Armed Forces-
the draft
3. The American Expeditionary Forces (AEF)-
American infantrymen, called "doughboys." Led by General John Pershing
4. Trench Warfare-
5. Stalemate-
a "deadlock," neither side is making progress
6. War of Attrition-
Forces do not confront each other in direct
combat but instead aim to
Goal= WEAR THE OTHER SIDE DOWN FIRST
Trade with Britain
Sinking of Lusitania
Battle of the Argonne Forest= turning point, Allies bring the "beginning of the end" of the war.
Whoever, when the United States is at war, shall willfully . . . utter, print, write, or publish any
disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the form of government of the United
States . . . shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more
than twenty years, or both. . . .
—Espionage Act, May 1918
Primary Source Analysis
How much power should the Federal Government possess?
Should those powers be different in times of War?
Enforced largely by A. Mitchell Palmer, the United States attorney general under President Woodrow Wilson, the Espionage Act essentially
made it a crime
for any person
to convey information intended to interfere with the U.S. armed forces
prosecution of the war effort or
to promote the success of the country's enemies.
Anyone found
guilty
of such acts would be subject to a
fine of $10,000
and a
prison sentence of 20 years.

The Espionage Act was reinforced by the
Sedition Act
of the following year, which imposed similarly harsh penalties on anyone found guilty of
making false statements
that
interfered with
the
prosecution of the war
;
insulting or abusing the U.S. government
,
the flag
, the
Constitution or the military
; agitating against the
production of necessary war materials
; or advocating, teaching or defending any of these acts.
Espionage and Sedition Acts
Reparation Amount= $63 billion ($768 billion today), then reduced to $33 billion ($402 billion today).
Canada annexing a portion of the U.S.A.
Full transcript