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Arab Spring Presentation
Transcript of Arab Spring Presentation
Was it a revolution?
Saudi Arabia Egypt
Tunisia: 300 people
Egypt: 900 people
Yemen: 250 people
Libya: 30000 people
Syria: 3500 people
Years in power
Tunisia: 23 years
Egypt: 30 years
Yemen: 22 years
Lybia: 42 years
Syria: 11 years
The demonstrations were precipitated by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption, a lack of freedom of speech and other political freedoms and poor living conditions.
Population: 83,688,164 as of July 2012
Life Expectancy: 72.93 years
Hosni Mubarak was the president of Egypt from 14 October 1981 to 11 February 2011
Began his presidency following the assassination of Former President Anwar El Sadat in 1981
In 2009, During the last quarter of 2009, Egypt’s unemployment rate was 9.4% and had an inflation rate of 11.9% according to the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) and Unemployment, deteriorating economic condition etc. were common experiences of the people, regardless of caste, creed, and ethnicity” (Baroi 111).
The Emergency Law in Egypt was created in 1958 and was enacted during the Israeli-Arab War in 1967. Following the war, the law was reenacted following the 1981 Presidential assassination of President Sadat.
A few rights included: Right to peaceful assembly, Movement and Living, Arrest and Detention of suspects, and Investigating people’s houses without abiding by criminal procedure law.
The emergency law can be considered a clear violation of the constitution of Egypt according to the article 41, 44, 50, 54 (The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights, 2008).
For example, Article 41 states “no person may be arrested, inspected, detained or his freedom restricted or freedom of movement curtailed except by judicial warrant required for the purpose of an investigation or the preservation of the security of the society” (The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt, 1971).
2010 December - Protests break out over unemployment and political restrictions, and spread nationwide
2011 January - President Ben Ali goes into exile amid continuing protests.
Prime Minister Mohammed Ghannouchi announces an interim national unity government, only partly satisfying protesters.
2011 February - Prime Minister Ghannouchi resigns, responding to demands by demonstrators calling for a clean break with the past.
2011 March - Date for election of a constitutional council set for July 24.
Rally for Constitutional Democracy (RCD), the party of ousted President Ben Ali, is dissolved by court order.
2011 June - Ex-president Ben Ali is tried in absentia for theft. He is sentenced to 35 years in prison.
2011 October - Parliamentary elections. Ennahda Islamist party wins, but falls short of an outright majority.
2011 December - Human rights activist Moncef Marzouki is elected president by the constituent assembly, Ennahda leader Hamadi Jebali is sworn in as prime minister.
2012 August - Thousands protest in Tunis against moves by Islamist-led government to reduce women's rights. Draft constitution refers to women as "complementary to men", whereas 1956 constitution granted women full equality with men.
17 January 2011: Man sets himself on fire near Egyptian parliament in response to poor economic conditions
18 January 2011: Mohamed ElBaradei warns of 'Tunisia-style explosion' in Egypt
25 January 2011: Thousands protest against President Hosni Mubarak calling for his resignation
26 January 2011: Security forces use tear gas and beatings; hundreds are arrested including foreign journalists
27 January 2011: Opposition Leader Mohamed ElBaradei returns to Egypt saying "Egyptian government on last legs"
28 January 2011: President Mubarak makes first TV appearance after four days of protests and pledges his commitment
to democracy. So far 25 people are dead as a result of the violent crackdown
29 January 2011: Hosni Mubarak appoints his intelligence chief and confidant, Omar Suleiman, as his first ever Vice President and a sign of a possible plan of succession
31 January 2011: Egypt's army makes its first statement in favor of the protestors saying "The armed forces will not resort to use of force against our great people"
1 February 2011: President Mubarak pledges to step down at the next election year
10 February 2011: President Obama demands that Egypt Present an unequivocal path to democracy
10 February 2011: President Mubarak announces his resignation and says "I have announced, without any doubt, that I will not run for the next presidential elections and have said that I have given the country and served the country for 60 years in public service, during wartime and during peacetime"
11 February 2011: After 18 days of mass protest, Vice President Omar Suleiman announces that President Mubarak is stepping down and hands power to the military
On 19 May, President Barack Obama gave a foreign policy speech in regards to the Arab Spring. Obama praised the demonstrators, comparing their efforts to bring about reform to the actions of the Boston Tea Party and Rosa Parks in American history.
He says "Our support for these principles is not a secondary interest... [It] will be the policy of the United States to promote reform across the region, and to support transitions to democracy."
Australia, France, New Zealand, Russia and Turkey all admire the people's demands for change.
After Ben Ali fled into exile in Saudi Arabia, protests continued and on January 27 Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi reshuffled the government, removing all former RCD (constitutional democratic rally) members other than himself, and on February 6, the former ruling party was suspended and in March was dissolved. Following further public protests, Ghannouchi himself resigned on February 27, and Beji Caid el Sebsi became Prime Minister.
On October 23, citizens voted in the first post-revolution election to elect representatives to a 217-member constituent assembly that would be responsible for the new constitution.The leading moderate Islamist party, Ennahda, won 37% of the vote, and managed to elect 42 women to the Constituent Assembly.
Since the beginning of the crisis, the EU has defended the rights of the Egyptians to demonstrate peacefully, and condemned the use of force by the authorities. Immediately after the departure of former president Mubarak and in direct response to the Egyptian people’s request for their civil, political and socio-economic rights, the EU launched a 20 million euro civil society package.
President Obama said "We [...] urge the Egyptian government to move swiftly to explain the changes that have been made, and to spell out in clear and unambiguous language the step by step process that will lead to democracy and the representative government that the Egyptian people seek [...] The Egyptian people have made it clear that there is no going back to the way things were: Egypt has changed, and its future is in the hands of the people" (President Obama).
After Mubarak resigns, the people on the 21st of March, 2011 vote to support changes that will serve as a blueprint for the next parliamentary and presidential elections six months later
One month later on April 13th, 2011, Mubarak is detained by the police on possible allegations of corruption and the squandering of public funds
On May 24th, 2011, Mubarak is referred to court over the killing of protestors and other charges
Egyptians vote in record numbers on November 28th, 2011 for new members of parliment and the primary party that won was the Islamic Brotherhood
After an election on May 23-24 and a run-off election held on June 16-17, Mohamed Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party won in a historic election
After all the votes were counted, The Freedom and Justice Party won 235 seats and the conservative Al Nour party gained 121 seats in parliament
Muammar Gaddafi became ruler of Libya in 1969 after leading a coup to overthrow the previously ruling Libyan monarchy
Gaddafi’s Green Book (1976) laid out his political/economic philosophy that he ran Libya on. Much of this was based off of Islamic law.
Libyan military played a large role maintaining Gaddafi’s power. Starting in the late 70s at least 5 billion dollars were spent annually on the military during his time in power. There are accounts of high ranking officers living lavishly off of this money.
During Gaddafi's reign laws have been established that limit various freedoms such as the rights of expression, association and assembly. Critics of the Libyan political system have been prosecuted.
Freedom House ranked Libya among the strictest in the world in terms of Free Press in their 2010 report.
Despite restrctions on individual freedoms, Libya continued to lead much of Africa/Middle East in HDI and in GDP per capita. This points to perceived corruption of government and lack of democracy as primary causes of the approaching conflict rather than economic woes.
Feb 16: Protests arise over the arrest of a human rights activist
Feb 17: Libyans plan "Day of Rage" protest using social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter in wake of a state media blackout. many reported dead in clashes between secuirty forces and protestors
Feb 18: Dozens killed in protests in multiple cities, including Benghazi, the opposition's stronghold. Reports are difficult to confirm due to media blackout.
Feb 20: Gaddafi's son goes on TV to defend his father as protests reach the capital, Tripoli
Feb 22: Gaddafi himself makes TV address telling his supporters to take to the streets
Feb 25: Heavy protests reach heart of Tripoli demanding Gaddafi's exit, gunmen open fire
Mar 3: As battles ensue, the oppostion's National Transitional Council (NTC) in Benghazi declares itself Libya's sole representative, disregarding the regime
Mar 14: Revolutionary leaders encourage west to make efforts to assasinate Gadaffi
April 30: NATO missle kills Gaddafi's youungest son in Tripoli
Aug 21: Rebels enter Tripolo with little resistance, completely overtaking it within the coming days
Aug29: Gaddafi's wife and family escape to Algeria
Sep 1: Libya's interm leaders meet with world leaders in Paris to discuss Libya's future
Oct 20: Gaddafi is capture and killed in his hometown Sirte
On Feb 26 the UN Secuirty Council passed resolution 1970, refering the situation in Libya to the International Criminimal Court as well as imposing restrictions on serveral of its top leaders
On Mar 17, citing a failure from Libya to respond to resolution 1970, the legal basis for military intervention in the Civil War was formed within resolution 1973 as well as authorizing a no fly zone in Libyan airspace
On June 27 the International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for Gaddafi
On Sep 16 the UN Security Council eased sanctions on Libya through resolution 2009 and the interim government is officially recogn ized by the UN
Immediate following the conflict, the National Transitional Council was recognized as the sole governing body of Libya.
On July 7th the Gneral National Congress was elected and replaced the NTC as the governing body of Libya as of August 8th.
The system has many political parties within it, vastly different from Gaddafi's regime with banned the establishment of any second political parties alongside his
Freedom House improved Libya's freedom of press rating from "Not Free" to "Partly Free" as a result of the fall of Gaddafi's regime.
Meet the Assads
Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia
Alli Abdullah Saleh
22 Years in Power
Zaydi Shia Islamic
General People's Congress (Yemen)
Ahmad Ali (Son) headed the Republican Guards
Yahya (Nephew) commanded the Central Security Forces
Ammar (Nephew) commanded the National Security Organisation
Mohammed (Half-brother) was in charge of the Air Force
Tariq (Nephew) headed of the Presidential Guard.
HDI: 154 (0.462)
GDP (per capita): $2300
January 23: Thousands protest in Sana'a after authorities charge Tawakul Karman with organising unlicensed demonstrations
January 30: Yemenis take to the streets calling for President Saleh to step down
February 3: Yemeni protesters turn out for 'day of rage'
HDI: ranking 94
LIfe expectancy at birth: 74.5 years
GDP per capita: 7512
March 10: Yemen's president offers new constitution and referendum (Separation of Powers)
March 23: Yemen MPs pass emergency laws to quash uprising (The law suspends the constitution, allows media censorship, bans street protests and gives security forces 30 days of far-reaching powers to arrest and detain suspects.)
April 20: Yemen protests: fresh clashes in Taiz
June 3: Yemen slides towards all-out war after President Saleh survives rocket attack
June 1: Yemen crisis deepens as dozens are killed in street battles
February 24: President Salleh Abdicates from Yemen's presidency
February 27: Presidential election held to replace Saleh as the new president of Yemen; Abd Rabbuh Mansur Al-Hadi elected and inaugurated
February 28: Approval of Saleh's immunity from prosecution by Yemeni legislators
June 2011: Embattled Yemeni president Ali Abdullah Saleh urged to make exit deal
Yemen’s new government faces daunting challenges from all sides: the old regime, the protestors and regional insurgencies.
No cahnge in constitution after the elections
Security Council Resolution 2014 (2011)
Middle East States reactions
International donations and Humanitary help