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Medical Advances of the Industrial Revolution

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Aaron Sykes

on 22 March 2013

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Transcript of Medical Advances of the Industrial Revolution

of the Industrial Revolution Medical Breakthroughs 1590-1600, Zacharius Jannssen: Creation of Microscope 1816- Rene Laennec: Invents first Stethoscope 1818- James Blundell 1879, 1881, 1882, 1890:
Vaccinations are born In 1590, a Dutch lens maker came across a way to create a device that would magnify objects.

He fashioned it and fabricated many of these devices which was later known as the microscope. 1867: Joseph Lister Published Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgey in 1867.

Knew that there needed to be cleanliness in the operating room. (This was a revolutionary idea at the time.)

Says wounds and medical instruments should be cleaned with carbolic acid.

Helped decrease the amount of deaths from infection. 1747- James Lind: Discovers ways to Prvent Scurvy In 1747 James Lind discovered that simply by eating citrus fruits like oranges or lemons, you could prevent yourself from obtaining Scurvy. Scurvy was a disease that not much was known about it at the time. It would start by the lack of Vitamin C and grow into spots on the skin, open wounds, blackened gums, loss of teeth, and even death. However, in 1754 when Lind would publish his book entitled "Treatise of the Scurvy", many people became more aware of how to prevent it. This was when there was a large decrease in the amount of deaths from Scurvy. 1670- Anton van Leeuwenhoek: Refines the Microscope In 1670, Anton van Leeuwenhoek was able to refine the microscope to make it better.

Fabricated about 500 different types of these microscopes.

Biggest breakthrough was that he could now analyze blood cells and or plant/ animal cells. In 1816, Rene Laennec was able to create the first device used to listen to a patients heartbeat. As it is now known as the Stethoscope, all credit is given to her for the invention she came up with. Some have said that she lead the way for women in the Medical World. She fought this fight along with Elizabeth Blackwell who was the first women to graduate from college with a medical degree, doing so in 1849. Performed first successful blood transfusion.

First tests were completed on dogs.

This method wouldn't be accepted for about another 50 years. 1879: The first ever vaccine was created, protected against the virus Cholera.

1881: First vaccine created for Anthrax.

1882: First vaccine for Rabies.

All three vaccines created by Dr. Louis Pasteur.

1890: Emil von Behring uses anti-toxins to create vaccines for Tetanus and Diptheria.

Revolutionized Medicine, could now hinder outbreaks like such virus'.

Many vaccines wre then created for huge disease outbreaks ongoing in the 1900's This is what Zacharius' first microscope looked like. This was his most basic model of his microscope. It shows resemblance to what our most basic microscopes look like today. By: Aaron Sykes
World History
Hr. 7 This is Rene's first type of the Stethoscope, basically just a wooden tube that you could feel and listen through. James' blood transusion tool. Use of Carbolic Acid backfired on Lister. Later found out to be poisonous. Cholera Virus: An infection of the Small Intestine. Due to poor consumption of water or consumption of bad water. Rabies Virus: Takes awhile to "incubate". Spreads throughout your nervous system creating huge brain disease. Unless treated, it ultimately will cause death. Caused by bite or wound, usually from animals. Anthrax Virus: It is a bacterial virus caused by the bacteria Bacillus Anthracis. Involves skin and lungs. Spreads easily and will cause death quickly. Can be caused by animals or used as a weapon. Louis Pasteur Emil von Behring Tetanus is a virus that attacks the nervous system and cuts off messages from the brain to the spine. It starts by entering the body through a cut or wound. Will result in death if not treated. Can cause huge spasms that can rip muscle from bone or even fracture vertebra. 1895: Discovery of X-Rays Discovered by German Pysicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen.

Not many understood the idea of shooting radioactive rays into a humans to see through the soft tissue. One of the first X-Rays One of the first X-Ray machines 1899: Production of Aspirin Felix Hoffman discovers it by using Acetyl Salicylic Acid.

Knew it came from willow trees.

Synthesized it to make it safe for humans.

It is now the most widely used medicine in the world. 1906, 1921: Vitamins are Produced 1906: Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins discovers that Vitamins are essential to human survival.
(Goes on to win the Nobel Peace Prize in1929)

1921: Edward Mellanby discovers that Vitamin D is needed to be healthy. It's absence is proven to cause Rickets. Rickets is the bowing of the legs. Vitamins Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins Edward Mellanby 1922: Insulin and Diabetes In this year, Insulin was first used to treat people with Diabetes.

Before this, people with Diabetes would usually die a painful death.

Doctors now knew that the reason people would die is because their body couldn't break down the sugars they needed.

First tests were done on dogs with Diatbetes.

Was created and tested well before 1922. (1869-1906)

No one really knows who the first person to create and revieve the solution were. A vial of Insulin. The Chemical makeup of Insulin. Video 1928: Discovery of Penicillin Scottish Bacteriologist Sir Alexander Fleming had been able to discover Penicillin in 1928.

With his revolutionary discovery came a win of the Nobel Peace Prize.

Shared prize with Ernst Chain and Sir Howard Florey.

First Antibiotic that help get rid of viral infections.

Treats Bacterial infections that others are suseptable to. Injectable Penicillin Sir Alexander Fleming Fleming in his lab. 1937: First Blood Bank Dr. Bernard Fantus orchestrates the first blood bank at Cook County Hospital in Chicago.

Dr. Fantus used a 2% solution of Sodium Citrate to preserve the blood.

Sodium Citrate is usually used to preserve foods like meats and fish.

The blood would last for 10 days if refridgerated.

Over the years Dr.'s were able to safely take not only blood by just certain thing's in your blood to store such as: platelets or plasma, etc. A young Bernard Fantus One of the forms of Sodium Citrate. 1940's: First vaccine for Influenza The first vaccinations for influenza were actually developed by the U.S. military.

The first vaccines were used during World War II to keep soldier from getting sick.

Before the vaccines came about, many horrific outbreaks happened.
-Asiatic Flu: Mortality rate was 0.75-1 death per every 1000 people. 1889-1890
-Spanish Flu: 500 million ill; 200-300 million people died. From 1918-1920
-Honh Kong Flu: 750, 000 to 1 million died from 1968- 1969.

Over the years Dr.'s finally realized that they needed to reform the vacciniation to make it safer and useable for different types of the flu. This was when doctors realized there are thousands of types of the influenza virus.

Of course none of us can forget about the H1N1 virus that caused a major social uproar in 2009. Overall it was considered an outbreak with over 14,000 people died, but wasn't as bad as some made it out to be.

This was possibly the biggest discovery in American Medical History. It helped stop deaths in AMerica and around the world a lot. This was revolutionary in that the millions of people dieing a year, wouldn't die anymore. Diagram of Influenza cell WWII: The first place the influenza vaccine was used. The overreactant "Swine Flu". James Blundell
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