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History of Hot Air Balloon

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Mike Kostovski

on 17 September 2012

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Transcript of History of Hot Air Balloon

History of Hot Air Balloons Who invented the hot air balloon?
How did they discovered it? The first manned hot air balloon was invented by Joseph-Michel Montgolfier and his brother Jacques-Etiene Montgolfier. They were french and both in the paper manufacturing business.They developed a new kind of paper made of a combination of paper and silk. When they tried to burn the paper they noticed some little pieces of paper and ashes would rise in the air. They concluded that if man could capture this type of air they can use it to fly. Learning about this "air" At first the Montgolfier brothers thought this "magical power" came from smoke. They later on discovered if they captured the smoke within small bags, the bags would eventually rise into the air. Making a larger bag containing enough of this "magical power," it could ascend high into the sky lifting considerable weight, which later became the hot air balloon. First Flight The first hot air balloon flight was conducted by the Montgolfier brothers from Annonay, France on June 5, 1783. The envelope of the balloon was made of linen and paper. The balloon had a volume of 23,308 cubic feet and the air within was heated from a fire on the ground. The first passengers weren't humans but were actually animals. Including a pig, duck, and rooster. The Montgolfier balloon flew a mile away from the starting point. On November 21, 1783, Pilatre de Rozier and Marquis d'Arlandes made the first manned flight in a Montgolfier balloon from the center of Paris to the city's suburbs. Competition Also in 1783, on August 27th, a French chemist Jacques Charles invented a different type of balloon that used hydrogen to fly. Hydrogen was discovered several years ago. These gas balloons competed very effectively with hot air balloons for many years. However, the hot air balloon was far more safe than the hydrogen balloon due to the fact that hydrogen is explosive. What changes happened since the first flight? People became more interested in fixed winged air crafts (airplanes). As a result, there were very few advances and improvements to the hot air balloon for about 150 years. Ballooning came back in around 1960. Ed Yost an American inventor developed basic techniques that made hot air ballooning practical. He built a balloon made of nylon. Heating the air inside the balloon with a propane burner, compared from the ground from the first flight. Ed Yost is considered to be the father of modern day ballooning. Tracy Barnes An American aeronaut (one who operates or travels in an airship or balloon) developed the parachute valve, that when pulled down by a line would let some of the air out of the balloon. The remaining air in the balloon caused the valve to push back upward and reseal itself in the top of the balloon when the line was released. The valve allowed pilots to open and close it during the flight to control their altitude and land with air remaining in the balloon. One instrument that shows the vertical speed up or down is called the Variometer.
The second instrument that shows the temperature at the top of the balloon and the ambient temperature is the digital temperature gauge.
The third instrument is the Altimeter which tells how high the balloon is above sea level
Other improvements to the hot air balloons are the fabrics used. Taffeta has replaced nylon in many cases because its ability to withstand higher temperatures. A coating to protect against ultra violet is in both taffeta and nylon fabrics. Also most balloons baskets are rectangular and triangular and are made out of rattan wicker. Improvements on the Balloon Ed Yost's balloon used a rip vent, a seal which could not be resealed and let all of the air escape at once. Instruments on the balloon Examples of these instruments First unmanned balloon Unmanned hot air balloons are popular in Chinese history. Zhuge Liang of the Shu Han kingdom, in the Three Kingdoms era (220–280 AD) used airborne lanterns for military signaling. These lanterns are known as Kongming lanterns. The first hot air balloon was used for military, and ironically we use them just for entertainment How the balloon works Basically the warmer air rises in cooler air which allows the balloon to get lifted into the sky. This is because hot air is lighter than cool air as it has less mass per unit of volume. The controls for piloting a balloon are much easier than any other aircraft.

1 - To move the balloon upwards you need to open up the propane valve which lets the propane flow to the burner which in turn fires the flame up into the envelope. Works similar to a grill, the more you open the valve, the bigger the flame will heat the air, the faster the balloon will rise.

2 - To move the balloon downwards - the 'Parachute Valve' at the very top of the balloon is what is used to bring the balloon down towards the ground. If the pilot wants to bring the balloon down he simply pulls on the chord which will open the valve, letting hot air escape, decreasing the inner air temperature.

So essentially this takes care of the up and down movement, so how does the balloon move from place to place? Again the answer is very simple, the pilot can maneuver horizontally by changing the vertical position of the balloon because the wind blows in different directions at different altitudes. If the pilot wants to move in a particular direction they need to reach the appropriate altitude level and ride with the wind. I hope you enjoyed my presentation on the hot air balloon By: Michael Kostovski Achievements with the balloon The Atlantic Ocean, for many years had been the greatest challenge in ballooning history. On 1978, the Atlantic Challenge was finally conquered. 3 pilots, Ben Abruzzo, Maxie Anderson and Larry Newman, flew the distance in 137 hours, covering 3,120 miles in their balloon, Double Eagle II. This was a benchmark in balloon history. The first recorded around the world hot air balloon flight was achieved in 1999 when Swiss Betrand Piccard and British Brian Jones teamed up and broke the record. They launched on Monday, March 1st. From Chateau d'Oex in the Swiss Alps and after 19 days, 21 hours and 55 minutes, successfully landed over Mauritania in North Africa. They became the first balloonists to circumnavigate the globe with a non-stop, non-refueled flight, having traveled a ground breaking distance of 42,810 KM. Atlantic Ocean Around the world Conclusion To recap:The first hot air balloon, was used for the military. This first Montgolfier balloon was traveled by farm animals. A balloon rises into the air because heated air is less dense than regular air. The achievements crossing the Atlantic and the world! Lastly don't travel with a hydrogen balloon very explosive.
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