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Blast Lab: Keratin
Transcript of Blast Lab: Keratin
2. Since the red jungle fowl is a type of bird we placed the species near the birds on the cladagram (see next slide for visual).
3. The fossil gene sequence is 100% similar to the red jungle fowl
4. Since the Zebra Finch (gene 2) had a 92% similarity that is the next most similar gene. *Everyone agrees that the placement of the fossil specimen should be near the birds because of the genes we looked at and because of the similarities we found
*There are currently 198 genomes currently available for making comparisons using BLAST
*Out of all the species in the world 198 comparison points is not that much. It limits our results to just comparing it to the species we know when others could hypothetically be out there
*Rock layer analysis, and the composition of carbon in the fossil could help us figure out how old the fossil is
*By having new DNA we can compare to other new species and figure out what they are Evaluating Results *What is the function of keratin in humans?
*Do other organisms related to humans have keratin?
*Does keratin found on different genes relate to the same or different organisms? Question & Hypothesis 1. Go to the Entrez Gene website and search for human keratin 18
2. Click on the section "NCBI Reference Sequences"
3. Under "mRNA and Proteins" click on the first file name
4. Click "FASTA"
5. Copy the entire gene sequence and then go to the BLAST homepage
6. Click on "nucleotide blast" and paste the sequence in query sequence
7. Select search all genomes, somewhat similar, and hit BLAST
8. Repeat the process for human keratin 8
9.Analyze differences between the two genes and make a conclusion accordingly Procedure -Keratin 18:
-Black Cat Squirrel
-Common chimpanzee 91%
Cladogram *The rectangle represents our original hypothesis
*The circle represents where gene 2 would be located
*The triangle represents where genes 1 and 3 and
our fossil specimen would be placed based off of the DNA
evidence and similarities we found. Self-designed BLAST Investigation:
Keratin -We found that keratin is an important protein for the outer layer of skin and is a key structural component of hair and nails
-We think that other kinds of mammals or primates will have genes with protein similar to keratin because it helps with the structure on hair and nails and those species tend to have hair and nails
-We also believe that keratin found on different genes will not really affect what organisms use this protein because only certain types of species would have a use for keratin Conclusions -Keratin 8:
-Rhesus Monkey 82%
-Olive baboon 78%
-Chimpanzee 75% *The keratin 18 gene was more similar to human when looking at the other species
*The common chimpanzee was common in both keratin 8 and 18 -We conclude that our hypothesis was somewhat correct. We found that primates (especially specific kinds of monkeys and chimps) have very similar keratin genes to humans
-The keratin gene must have evolved from primates because it is present and similar in there
-Keratin 18 is more similar in humans and primates than keratin 8 because of the percentages we found