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Malawi Land Redistribution

John Hayes and Ashley Rogers are analyzing policy options for land redistribution in Malawi.
by

Ashley Rogers

on 28 May 2010

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Transcript of Malawi Land Redistribution

John Hayes and Ashley Rogers Malawi Land Redistribution Problem Economic Large estates are less efficient than small farms Social Lack of access to land keeps the poorest Malawians poor Environmental Land density leads to environmental degradation Causes Colonial and post-colonial distribution of land
Lack of access to capital because of high interest rates
Limited tenure security for those living on communal lands

Pilot Reform: CBRLDP Project Overview Willing-buyer-willing seller
Beneficiaries self-select into groups and apply for land
Program allocates grant for land purchases and land development
Program offer technical expertise for one-year
Funded by the World Bank Limitations There are not enough willing sellers to make the project scalable to achieve large-scale land redistribution
Gender inequity
Corruption
Criteria Magnitude Cost Agricultural Output Equity for Women Environmental Preservation Political Feasibility People with increased land holdings
Land reallocated National agricultural yeild
Individual beneficiary yeild Women titled land Reduced pressure on fragile land Program costs
Infrastructure costs
Beneficiary costs Support from World Bank, international funders, Commission, Parliament, Executive Branch, Large land owners, rural beneficiaries, rural non-beneficiaries Options Pilot Expanded Implement CBRLDP in all districts of Malawi
Require 30% female head of household participants
Title all land to both male and female of dual headed households

Taxation Area-based land tax on all land over 40 ha
Some owners will choose to produce more others will choose to sell
Revenue from tax will help support community banks
Land-poor farmers will use loans from community banks to purchase land Trade-offs Pilot-expanded: the most politically feasible and the lowest cost to participants however, impact is limited Taxation: actually generates income however, it has possible negative results for the environment and high cost to beneficiaries Expropriation: is able to reallocate the most land and serve the most households. However, it is the most expensive and the least politically feasible option Recommendations Despite the high political and financial burden, we recommend EXPROPRIATION
It is the only option that will result in large-scale land redistribution
It may be wise to start with the pilot-expanded and make a gradual transition to expropriation Builds on CBRLDP program
Negotiates with large estate owners to encourage them to sell land
Sets criteria by which the government can acquire private land and distribute it through the CBRLDP
Large estate owners will receive fair price and have right to due process Expropriation A presentation to the Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources
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