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Cellular Respiration

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by

Taryn Ferrando

on 8 January 2014

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Transcript of Cellular Respiration

ATP
ATP
ATP
The Adventure of Gloria Glucose!
Glycolysis
Glucose
Pyruvate
Glucose is split into two molecules called pyruvate.
Glycolysis also makes 2 NADH and 4 ATP, with a net gain of 2 ATP, in addition to the 2 pyruvate produced.
Glycolysis takes place in the cytosol of a cell.
(Cytosol is the blue area of the cell shown)
2 Pyruvate are then actively transported into the mitochondria within the cell. They are pushed through to the matrix of the mitochondria and then begin the Krebs Cycle.
Krebs Cycle
(Sugars that the body produces)
Pathway
Substrate level phoshorylation ATP
Oxidative Phosphorylation NADH and
FADH 2
Total ATP
Glycolysis
Link Reaction
Kreb Cycle
Total ATP
2 ATP
2 ATP
4 ATP
2 NADH (Or 2 FADH2)
2 NADH
6 NADH and 2 FADH2
10 NADH and 2 FADH2 (Or 8 NADH and 4 FADH2)
6 ATP (Or 4 ATP)
6 ATP
22 ATP
36 or 38 ATP
Tracking ATP Production in Aerobic Respiration
*Rules:
1.
NADH produces 3 ATP and
2.
FADH2 produces 2 ATP
Electrons are carried by the NADH
2 ATP and Gloria Glucose go into Glycosis
Electrons are carried by the NADH and the FADH2
Link Reaction
Before we get to the Krebs Cycle, the pyruvate go through what is called the link reaction which takes place at the membrane of the mitochandria.
One of the carbon atoms from pyruate pairs up with an oxygen molecule, leaving as carbon dioxide. NAD+ is paired up with a hydrogen to form NADH which goes to carry electrons to the electron transport chain. An enzyme called coenzyme A pairs up with what is left of pyruvate to from Acetyl CoA, the molecule needed for the Krebs Cycle.
Also known as Citric Acid Cycle
Here is a quick overview of what Gloria Glucose has gone through so far. She went in to Gylcolysis which broke her up into 2 pyruvate and then after getting rid of a carbon and making NADH for each pyruvate, she became acetyl CoA.
Now for the Krebs Cycle. This entire cycle is a lot to take in, so lets look at it in steps. Keep in mind that the names of all the carbon molecules are not that important, focus on what is produced by the cycle.
Krebs Cycle
A
A
acytol CoA
oxaloacetate
4C
citrate
6C
The first step to the Krebs cycle is adding the Acytol CoA. It is combined with Oxloacetate, a 4-carbon molecule. They produce citrate, a 6-carbon molecule
isocitrate
6C
After a chemical reaction that involves taking away water and then adding it again, citrate turns into isocitrate, which is also a 6-carbon molecule.
Step 1.
Step 2.
isocitrate
NAD+
NADH
CO2
a
-ketoglutrate
6C
5C
Isocitrate goes on to link NAD+ with a hydrogen, resulting in NADH. It also losses another carbon atom to an oxygen molucle which makes carbon dioxide. These reactions cause isocitrate to become a 5-carbon molecule called
a
-ketoglutrate.
Step 3.
a
-ketoglutarate
NAD+
NADH, H+
CO2
succinyl CoA
5C
4C
Next,
a
-ketoglutrate links NAD+ with two hydrogen atoms which creates NADH and H+. It also loses a carbon atom to an oxygen molecule, resulting in
a
-ketoglutrate becoming succinyl CoA, a 4-carbon molecule.
Step 4.
P
succinyl CoA
ADP
ATP
succcinate
4C
4C
Succinyl CoA links a phosphate with an ADP to produce an ATP. Through another reaction, succinyl CoA turns into succinate, also a 4-carbon molecule.
Step 5.
succinate
fumarate
malate
FAD
FADH2
4C
4C
4C
Succinate then helps in adding two hydrogen atoms to FAD in order to make FADH2. Due to the reaction, succinate turns into the 4-carbon molucule fumarate. Water is then added and fumarate becomes a 4-carbon molecule called malate.
H2O
Step 6.
malate
ocaloacetate
NAD+
NADH, H+
4C
4C
The 4-carbon malate then adds two hydrogen atoms to NAD+, producing NADH and H+. This reaction turns malate into ocaloacetate which is the molecule we began the cycle with. This is the end of the krebs cycle. Now lets check out the number of outputs the krebs cycle made.
Cytosol
Mitochandria
Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation
As you can see by the diagram below, the oxidative phosphorylation involves the intermembrane space, the inner membrane and the matrix of the mitochondria. There are several different steps to this phase as well. Let's break it down!
Step 1.
The first step to the electron transport chain is with the NADH. It moves with the electron flow through the protein complex of electron carriers. When going through that complex NADH loses hydrogen which is then released into the intermembrane space so that it can be stored there for later.
Step 2.
Next a mobile electron carrier continues the flow of electrons. In this phase, FADH2 comes in and has it's hydrogen released and turning into FAD.
Notice that NADH and FADH2 release hydrogen in different places and at different times. This results in FADH2 making only 2 ATP later on as opposed to NADH which makes 3 ATP.
Step 3.
In the second protein complex, the electron that came off of NADH continues through the electron flow and causes another hydrogen to be sent to the intermembrane space.
The electron from FADH2 also produces another hydrogen by going through the complex.
Step 4.
At the last complex both electrons, one from NADH and the other from FADH2 go through the complex releasing hydrogen. They then assist in combing half an oxygen molecule and two hydrogen to form a water molecule. Since NADH's electron went through all 3 complexes, it will make three ATP as where FADH2's electron only went through 2 complexes, resulting in two ATP later being produced.
Keep in mind that oxidation happens twice, once per each pyruvate made in glycolysis. This means that instead of having only 3 ATP from NADH and 2 ATP from FADH2 as outputs, you really have 6 from NADH and 4 from FADH2 total. *See in table of Tracking ATP Production in Aerobic Respiration.
Step 5.
The electron transport chain ends at the third complex, however another step takes place in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This process is call Chemiosmosis. It is the process of ATP synthase using the hydrogen provided by both NADH and FADH2, to
combined ADP and a phosphate to make ATP which has three total phosphates. This is where the total amount of ATP comes from in the table labeled Tracking ATP Production.
Keep This in Mind
There are a few things to remember when it comes to Cell Respiration. This is considered a catabolic reaction due to the large amount of enzymes and redox reactions that occur. Remember that all things happen twice. Gloria glucose was split in Glycolysis which means that both parts go through all of the reactions after that. Lastly, the aerobic respiration is the final phase which is oxidation of glucose, the process that produces most of the ATP made in cell respiration.
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