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Alternative Energy Sources

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Faizan Waseem

on 1 May 2013

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Transcript of Alternative Energy Sources

Alternate Energy Faizan Waseem Ryan Moses Alternate Energy
That most of us
know Hydroelectric-
Energy Geothermal-
Energy Solar Power-
Energy Nuclear-
Energy Wind-
Energy Some lesser known alternative energies Bio Fuel-
Energy Saltwater Energy Helioculture Piezoelectricity Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Human Sewage Hot rock Power Pros, and Cons
about Hydro-electricity Evaporative Energy A bit about
Hydro-electricity Vortex Induced Vibrations Mining the Moon Space-Based Solar Power Hydro power works by harnessing the gravitational descent of a river that is compressed from a long run to a single location with a dam or a flume. This creates a location where concentrated pressure and flow of water can be used to turn turbines or water wheels. Which turns an electric generator- Creates
energy for us! CONS:
Dams are expensive to build
There NEEDS to be enough water for it to work Pros:
-After storing up Water, you can
release it to gain energy to your demand
-No outside forces, so energy levels stay
at a constant rate
-Water can be reused Pros and Cons of Geothermal energy Literally, geothermal means, "earth heat." Geothermal energy harnesses the heat energy present underneath the Earth. Hot rocks under the ground heat water to produce steam. When holes are drilled in the region, the steam that shoots up is purified and is used to drive turbines, which power electric generators. Some Pros and Cons of Space-Based Solar Power A little in depth Pros
-If done correctly, no harmful
by-products are formed
-A self-sufficient form of energy
-Geothermal power plants are generally small and have little effect on the natural landscape Cons
-If done incorrectly, geothermal energy can produce pollutants
-Improper drilling into the earth can release hazardous minerals and gases
-Geothermal sites are prone to running out of steam solar power works by trapping the sun's rays into solar cells where this sunlight is then converted into electricity.
Additionally, solar power uses sunlight that hits solar thermal panels to convert sunlight to heat water or air. pros and cons In the world of nuclear reactions, a highly sought after isotope is helium 3- a helium atom with 2 protons and 1 neutron- this is also very rare on Earth. On the moon there are large supplies of helium 3. Mining the moon provides us with much of this isotope. PROS!
-Solar power is a renewable resource. As long as the Sun exists, its energy will reach Earth.
-Solar power generation releases no water or air pollution, because there is no chemical reaction from the combustion of fuels.
-Solar energy can be used very efficiently for practical uses such as heating and lighting.
-The benefits of solar power are seen frequently to heat pools, spas, and water tanks all over. Pros Cons CONS!
-Solar power does not produce energy if the sun is not shining. Nighttime and cloudy days seriously limit the amount of energy produced.
-Solar power stations can be very expensive to build. Wind energy harnesses the power of the wind to propel the blades of wind turbines. The rotation of turbine blades is converted into electrical current by means of an electrical generator. In the older windmills, wind energy was used to turn mechanical machinery to do physical work, like crushing grain or pumping water.Wind towers are usually built together on wind farms. Now, electrical currents are harnessed by large scale wind farms that are used by national electrical grids as well as small individual turbines used for providing electricity to isolated locations or individual homes. In 2005, worldwide capacity of wind-powered generators was 58,982 megawatts, their production making up less than 1 of world-wide electricity use. In saltwater energy production, saltwater is added to fresh water in a process called reverse electrodialysis. Blue Energy Power Plants coukld be set up to capture energy as it is released naturally in estuaries across the world While having very few repercussions, these "Blue energy" plants do disturb natural environment but measures can be taken to reduce these effects. In general, a nuclear reactor performs the same function as a furnace in a gas or oil-fired generating station. Rather than using gas or oil as a fuel to boil water to create high-pressure steam, the reactor uses the fission or splitting of uranium atoms to generate heat to make steam.In all generating plants, the steam is then directed at the blades of a turbine, which causes the wheel and shaft to spin at high speed. The shaft is connected to the rotor of the generator, where mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. Helioculture works by combining brackish water, nutrients, photosynthetic organisms, carbon dioxide and sunlight. Unlike organic fossil fuels which take years to produce, helioculture works directly and produces ethanol and hydrocarbons which do not need to be refined. Pros!
-Lower carbon dioxide (and other greenhouse gases) released into theatmosphere in power generation.
-Low operating costs (relatively).
-Known, developed technology “ready” for market.
-Large power-generating capacity able to meet industrial and city needs (as opposed to low-power technologies like solar that might meet only local, residential, or office needs but cannot generate power for heavy manufacturing). Pros &
Cons Cons!
-High construction costs due to complex radiation containment systems and procedures.
-High subsidies needed for construction and operation, as well as loan guarantees.
-Subsidies and investment could be spent on other solutions (such as renewable energy systems).
-High-known risks in an accident.
-Unknown risks.
-Long construction time.
-Target for terrorism (as are all centralized power generation sources).
-Waivers are required to limit liability of companies in the event of an accident. (This means that either no one will be responsible for physical, environmental, or health damages in the case of an accident or leakage over time from waste storage, or that the government will ultimately have to cover the cost of any damages.)
-Nuclear is a centralized power source requiring large infrastructure, investment, and coordination where decentralized sources (including solar and wind) can be more efficient, less costly, and more resilient. Pros &
Cons Pros!
-Wind power produces no pollution that can contaminate the environment, Since no chemical processes take place, like in the burning of fossil fuels, in wind power generation, there are no harmful by-products left over.-Since wind generation is a renewable source of energy, we will never run out of it.-Farming and grazing can still take place on land occupied by wind turbines which can help in the production of biofuels.-Wind farms can be built off-shore. Human kinetic energy is being harnessed by implanting piezoelectric generators in streets mats and sidewalks in various towns and cities worldwide. Cons!
-Wind power is intermittent. Consistent wind is needed for continuous power generation. If wind speed decreases, the turbine lingers and less electricity is generated.-Large wind farms can have a negative effect on the scenery. OTEC uses temperature differences from ocean levels to use convection currents creating a heat engine. this could be used by building barges in the ocean to reach down into depths Biofuels are made from the same thing that fossil fuels are made of--dead organic material. It's only the length of time that it's been dead that differentiates biofuel sources. Wood, corn, grass and animal waste are all sources currently in use to make biofuel. Biofuel sources are plentiful, they are renewable and their conversion has become economically practical in a world of diminishing fossil fuel resources. Pros &
Cons Pros!
-Biofuels are environmentally much cleaner than fossil fuels, producing less air pollution and consuming materials that would otherwise be considered garbage.
-They are renewable; the supply of biofuels is less likely to run out, while the supply of fossil fuels probably will.
-They can be made locally using local materials.
-They can be flexible, easily mixed with other fuels.
-They can be cheaper than fossil fuels and will certainly become less expensive as the price of fossil fuel rises. Cons!
-Biofuels would require cultivating more land than is currently farmed. This is already considered a major problem.
-Some kinds of biofuels require modifications to vehicle engines.
-Biofuels are not widely available.
-Some biofuels still require the use of fossil fuels; for example, most vehicles must have some gasoline mixed into ethanol to work and cannot run on ethanol alone. Human Sewage can be collected and use as an electro chemical power source. This is done by creating a current by copying bacterial interaction in a controlled environment Problems that arise from using sewage is sanitary conditions must be under strict regulation. Also finding people willing to fill the jobs may be harder to find. Plants are already being set up in places like Oslo, Norway and more are on the way. Hot rock power is a new type of geothermal power that works by pumping cold saltwater down to rock which has been heated by conduction from the Earth’s mantle and by the decay of radioactive elements in the crust. As that water heats up, the energy created can be converted into electricity by a steam turbine. The advantages of hot rock power are that the output can be easily controlled and it can provide energy 24/7. THE END
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