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Human Condition 15 Final Exam C
Transcript of Human Condition 15 Final Exam C
'Question of the Women' Revolutionary War French Revolution This advanced the concept of women's freedom Both the Revolutionary War and the French Revolution focused on mankind’s equality but women’s equality wasn’t highlighted. Although by mobilizing more women politically and establishing a sense of free as a human right prepared everyone for the movement of feminism Mary Wollstonecraft published a book on the rights of women. The “Vindication of the Rights of Women” argued for the education equality of women, and allowing them to become independent and a whole part of society. She argued that the current education systems restricted women’s potential of benefiting society along with family and home life. This book was the first to clearly outline a push for change, it was also used by early feminists as a guide for their journey. Feminists challenged the suffrage movement as it had only accomplished women’s right to vote and not much more. Women would still be able to be sold by their husbands and held no authority in the home, over their children and would not have the opportunity to partake in high-level education. Women's suffrage and the movement of feminism both fought for the greater good of equality for women The suffrage movement focused only on the women's right to vote The feminist movement focused on middle-upper class white women and political equality, social and cultural inequalities, and campaigning for a greater influence in politics Suffragette Feminism versus The main reason why the feminists regarded the suffragette movements’ accomplishments as inadequate is because suffragettes only focused on the voting perspective, if the location they were living in even had voting. Many suffragists did not refer to themselves as feminists, mainly becuase they fought for the right to vote and not for complete equality for women. The Suffragette movement also didn't focus on younger girls, who coult not vote and would still be at the bottom of societies totem pole I agree with the statement “women suffer far greater human rights violations than men.” but only to a small extent. I do not agree with the part of the statement “suffer far greater” because I don’t think women suffer far greater than men, only slightly suffer more than men. Everyday girls and women are the focal point of jokes regarding their gender but I believe men are more objected to forced physical labor. Men are expected to be the provider and women are expected to be the homemaker. Both have stereotypes but I find that the stereotype of women is more relevant in society than the men stereotype, for example the sayings “make me a sandwich” or “get back in the kitchen”, among others. On the other side of the fence, men aren’t completely safe from abuse. In fact in 100 abusive situations, approximately 40 cases are women abusing men. Men in third world countries are subject to physically demanding labor in a effort to provide a decent life for their families. I believe women have always had more human violations than men. Women in Saudi Arabia suffer many violations, such as minimum say in politics, etc. The work force is made up of mainly men, as many of the women are told to stay home and take care of the household. Women have almost always had to fight for their rights (ex. right to vote) 'Women suffer far greater human rights violations than men.’ To what extent to agree with this statement? Human Rights in the World Tyler, Julia, Gillian, Sejal & Mikaela The League of Nations (LON) was an intergovernmental organization, much like an unsuccessful version of the United Nations (UN) It was founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first permanent international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace and prevent another war; but things didn't go as planned. Another one of the LON’s goals were that no one nation would be able to dominate smaller/weaker neighbours because those neighbouring nations would be able to call on the LON for support. Its ‘Covenant’ stated some primary goals which included – using collective security and disarmament to prevent war, and settling international disputes through negotiation. Other issues (in this and related treaties) included-
just treatment of native inhabitants
human and drug trafficking
prisoners of war
protection of minorities in Europe.
The League of Nations had three official languages – English, French and Spanish. The LON had no military backing to enforce any action that it might need to take. For example when Manchuria was invaded by Japan, in 1931, other countries were reluctant to get involved because China was not in their sphere of influence. Japan simply ignored the threat of LON sanctions and withdrew from the LON. Thus, the LON was not taken seriously.
The U.S was not part of the LON. As a quickly expanding superpower, the US wanted it both ways, to be able to export to the world, but not to participate in the global community. The military power of the U.S was needed by Europe and Asia, to back up sanctions and the threat of military action, but the US was going through a policy of isolationism.
When the structural weaknesses became apparent, strong nations left the LON (ex - Germany, Japan) and simply ignored the sanctions imposed. The remaining nations, mainly France and Britain, realized that getting the organization to do anything took too much time, and preferred direct diplomacy (or international relations) with Germany, evading the LON altogether. A League of Nations mandate was basically a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another after World War I, or the legal “instruments” that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for managing the territory on behalf of the League. The mandate system was established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. With the disintegration of the League of Nations after World War II, it was specified (at the Yalta Conference) that the remaining Mandates would be placed under the trusteeship of the United Nations, thus future discussions and formal agreements would now be under the UN. Class A Mandate Class B Mandate Class C Mandate These were territories formerly controlle by the Ottoman Empire Mesopotamia (UK)
Palestine Syria These were all former Schutzgebiete (German Territories) in the West and Central Africa Ruanda-Urundi (Belgium)
Tanganyika (UK Kamerun
Togoland These were former German possesions: former German New Guinea became the Territory of New Guinea (Australis/UK) Nauru
South-West Africa South Pacific Mandate The League of Nations mandate system was established after World War I to manage former territories of the German and Ottoman empires Until World War I, the victors of most European wars took control of defeated territories as their “conquered lands” of victory. This was especially true of the colonial territories of defeated European powers, as the victors sought to expand their own empires. After World War I, a significant break in this tradition was made. While Britain, France, Italy, and Japan still had imperial goals, other forces tempered these goals. The United States emerged as a world power, committed to an anti-imperial policy, which sought to consider the national aspirations of indigenous peoples as well as the imperial agendas of the victors. “The 5th of November, 1918 pre-armistice statement of the Allies, affirmed that annexation of territory was not their aim for ending the war”. – Gale Encyclopedia of the Mideast & North Africa. The result was the mandate system of the League of Nations, established by the treaties ending World War I. Under this system, the victors of World War I were given the responsibility of governing former German and Ottoman territories as mandates from the League. The ultimate goal was – the development of each mandate toward eventual independence. The League of Nations stopped countries such as Britain, France, Italy and Japan from taking control over their conquered lands. If they had taken over those lands, it is most likely they would have forced assimilation onto the people, and it is also possible that many of the cultures and traditions of the people would be taken away from them. There is no guarantee that people would be provided with good lives and would be treated as equals to the ruling country’s people. The rights of the indigenous people of the conquered territories would be infringed upon, and the League of Nations attempted to prevent this from happening. Once the anti-imperial policy was committed to, the rights of the people were considered as well as the countries that now had “control” over them. Instead of treating the area of conquered land as something they “owned or won”, they were now to govern the former German and Ottoman territories and hopefully bring the mandates and territories to their eventual independence. The fourth convention is the convention relative to the protection of civilian persons in time of war. The previous Geneva conventions were concerned with combatants only, not civilians. This convention mostly focuses on the regulations governing the status and treatment of civilians, which distinguish between the situation of foreigners and the citizens in the territory. This convention also focuses on general provisions and protection of populations against certain consequences of war. The status and treatment of these protected person, which includes the provisions common to the territories of the parties to the conflict, to occupied territories and collective punishment and occupied territories. It also focuses on the execution of these conventions. The Geneva Conventions are the core of international humanitarian law. It’s the body of international law that regulates the conduct of armed conflict and seeks to limit its effects. They protect people that aren’t taking part in hostilities and those who are no longer participating in the hostilities 1. 2. 3. 4. The first convention is the convention for the amelioration of the condition of the wounded and sick in armed forces in the field. It defines ‘the basis on which rest the rules of international law for the protection of the victims of armed conflicts.’ Wounded and sick soldiers who are out of the battle are to be humanely treated. They can’t be killed, injured, tortured or subjected to biological experimentation. Wounded and sick soldiers should be collected, cared for, and protected. The International Red Cross or any other impartial humanitarian organization may provide protection and relief for wounded and sick soldiers as well as medical and religious personnel. The second convention is the convention for the amelioration of the condition of wounded, sick and shipwrecked members of armed forces at sea. It is to protect and care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked. An article also allows appeals to be made to neutral vessels to help collect and care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked. The neutral vessels can’t be captured. It also protects religious and medical personnel serving on a combat ship. Hospital ships can’t be used for military purpose and cannot be attacked/captured. The third convention is the convention relative to the treatment of prisoners of war. This contains 143 articles. This convention establishes the principle that prisoners of war shall be released and repatriated without delay after the cessation of active hostilities. This convention focuses on the general provisions and protection of prisoners of war, captivity and the termination of captivity, the information bureau and relief societies for prisoners of war and the execution of the convention. Crimes Against Peace War Crimes Crimes Against Humanity Planning, preparing, initiating or waging of a war of aggression, or a war in violation of international treaties, agreements or assurances, or participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of any of the foregoing Violations of the laws or customs of war. Such violations shall include, but not be limited to, murder, ill-treatment or deportation to slave labour or for any other purpose of civilian population of or in occupied territory, murder or ill-treatment of prisoners of war or persons on the seas, killing of hostages, plunder of public or private property, wanton destruction of cities, towns or villages, or devastation not justified by military necessity Murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation or other inhumane acts committed against any civilian population before or during the war; or persecutions on political, racial or religious grounds in execution of or in connection with any crime within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal, whether or not in violation of the domestic law of the country where perpetrated. An amendment to the Geneva Convention relating to the protections of victims of non-international armed conflicts. It defines certain international laws that strive to provide better protection of the victims of internal armed conflicts that take place within the borders of a single country. The scope of these laws is more limited out of respect for sovereign rights and duties of national governments. US Breaches The Protocols The US has broken many Geneva Conventions in the invading and occupation of Iraq. The US has been reported to have had 3 500 Iraqi prisoners of war Protocol I Protocol II An amendment to the Geneva Conventions relating to the protection of victims of international armed conflicts. It reaffirms the international laws of the original Geneva Conventions of 1949 and adds clarifications and new provisions to accommodate developments in the modern international warfare that have taken place since the WWII What was the League of Nations? Why was the League of Nations unsuccessful? Iraqi Breaches The Iraq forces used human shields such as civilians, women and children as shields from the attacking Marines. This violates the fourth Geneva conventions, which protects the rights of civilians in the time of conflict. While it is OK to capture and hold prisoners of war, the 3rd Geneva Convention outlines that it is not permitted to photograph or embarass prisoners of war. Many Iraqi prisoners of war have had their images and names released The US forces had also used depleted uranium coated weapons, breaching the Geneva Conventions. Two thousand tonnes of depleted uranium were dropped on Iraq. There have been accounts of people such as Janis Karpinski, who was in charge of 17 prison facilities in Iraq Karpinski signed a memo approving torture techniques. This ranged from sleep deprivation, stress positions and meal disruption to leaving the lights on all night while playing loud music and insulting their religion, culture and beliefs. There have also been reports and articles that revealed that the Bush administration and ‘senior leadership’ had knowledge and approved of torture policies. The US forces had operations that destroyed two hospitals and denied medical assistance to civilians, a breach in the fouth convention protecting the civilian persons in times of war There have also been the bombing of innocent civilians International humanitarian law has given special protection to certain facilities in cities such as hospitals, places of worship and cultural property. However, Iraqi forces used these places to set up military bases. They used al-Nasiriyya Surgical Hospital and the Baghdad Red Crescent Maternity Hospital and threatened doctors. The Iraqi armed forces also protected themselves by establishing positions in mosques. Because of this, many mosques and religious property have been damaged. The Iraqi forces also wore civilian clothing, which also put civilians at risk. The Iraqi forces violated the Geneva conventions by abusing the Red Cross and Red Crescent emblems. These emblems are used to identify and protect medical personnel, building and equipment. However, the Iraqi forces used ambulances with the Red Cross symbols as a cover to get into the field of battle. The use of these symbols violates the prohibition on abuse of the emblem. International humanitarian law has prohibited the improper use of these emblems for many years. The Iraqi forces also captured and interviewed five prisoners of war, which is a violation of the third Geneva Convention, which protects the rights of prisoners of war. Traditionally in Africa, group rights are a strong aspect of their culture. The African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights is the only charter in the world that recognizes group rights. All African countries except Morocco signed the charter. Group or peoples rights are mentioned from article 19-24. Even though group rights hold importance individual rights are still relevant in a communal setting. Collective rights serve no purpose if individuals do not benefit from them equally. Even in historical Africa, collective rights did not benefit everyone equally, the leaders of the tribe and their families lived above the rest. 2. First of all in a dictatorship most of the economic profit of the country is not redistributed to the people, it ends up in the bank accounts of the ruling elite class. Some countries in Africa have been economically successful but still have poor human rights records. There are few countries with better economic development per capita than Saudi Arabia, yet they still have poor human rights. “The group is more important than the individual, decisions are made by consensus rather than competition and economic surpluses are generated and disposed of on a redistributive than profit oriented basis.” (Everyone benefits) 1. “Human Rights can be granted to people only through national economic development.” Many leaders of African states consider individual rights meaningless because collective rights benefit all people equally. They regard the peoples right of development, (article 22) as the most important before achieving other rights. This is because the economic development in poor countries is necessary for social well being and political stability. The corrupted leaders, often dictators, tell the people of the country that they need economic development to build the social, political, civil and cultural institutions and processes before the countries are secure enough to support the government giving the people more individual rights. The leaders give the impression that the government has and controls human rights and has the ability to grant them to the people when the time is right, like after all the oil has been sold the money is in the leaders bank account. Looking back, many African countries only made the decision to include universal human rights in their constitutions for the purpose of being recognized and accepted into the League of Nations. The rights were not put in as a way to protect the human rights of the citizens of the countries. is a moral code and a religious law of Islam. It is not a legal code. This law is the interpretations of the meaning of the Quran and Sunna by individual jurists. The two sources for sharia law are the Quran, the literal and final word of God, and the Sunna which is the actions and statements of Mohammed during his mission from 610-632 AD. Sharia law deals with topics addressing crime, politics, economics, and personal matters such as sex, hygiene, diet, prayer and fasting. Sharia Law After Iran was criticized the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for its failure to take into account the cultural and religious context of non-western cultures, Islam nations decided to create their own. This declaration is called the Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam. Section 24 of the Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam states that, “All the rights and freedoms situated in this Declaration are subject to the Islamic Sharia.” This means that Islamic nations place sharia law above human rights. For instance article 6 of the Declaration states, “A women is equal to a man in human dignity,” yet verse 4:32 of the Quran which sharia law is based on states, “And to long for that with which Allah has preferred some of you above others,” meaning that god favors men over women in the Islamic holy book and is practiced today in Islamic countries. What is in practice today in Islamic countries is that men are superior to women and non-Muslims because Sharia law overrides the human rights granted in the Declaration. (I use this only as an example not to critique Islam Religion)