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Human Condition 15 Final Exam C

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Julia Chen

on 9 February 2013

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Transcript of Human Condition 15 Final Exam C

Western Thought War Culture Islam League of Nations Women's Rights What was the Magna Carta of 1215? What were the three rights of Justics that were guaranteed by the Magna Carta? What is meant by Cultural Relativism? 'Universal human rights originated from the West, but they have received the support of the rest of the world.' How far do you agree with this statement? How does once counter the claim that in Africa individual rights are irrelevant in a communal setting? What is Sharia Law? In what three ways does the Qawama influence the status of Muslim Women? Using relevant examples explain the ways suggested in order to make Sharia Law consistent with universal human rights? What are the Geneva Conventions of 1949? What are the three categories of crimes that became punishable under international law as a result of the Nuremberg Charter of 1946? To what extent have the recent invading and occupation forces in Iraq observed the Geneva Conventions and the Protocols of 1977? What was the League of Nations' mandate system? Why was the mandate system established? How did the League of Nations attempt to promote human rights under the mandate system? How did feminism originate? Give three reasons why the feminist movement regarded the gains made by the suffragette movement as inadequate 'Women suffer far greater human rights violations than men.’ To what extent to agree with this statement? June 15, 1215 June 19, 1215 The 'Article of Barons' was agreed upon by King John and was signed at Runnymede The article was renamed as the Magna Carta and was accepted by King John The Archbishop of Carterbury, Stephan Langton, led barons into unrest in order for the king to grant the liberties The Magna Carta was a charter of English liberties granted by King John (1166 - 1216) of England under a threat of a civil war. The document was classified into nine 'groups' The Church and it being 'free 'Statements of feudal law of particular concern to those holding lands directly from the crown' The rights of subordinates Towns, trade and merchants The reform of law and justice Control of royal behaviour Royal forests Immediate issues A form of King's adherence to the Charter Clause 39 Clause 1 Article 17.2: "No one shall be arbitrarily deprive dof his property." Article 9: "No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile." This clause is an earlier version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 5, Article 9 and Article 17.2 This was placed first so people would know that the church wouldn't be affected negatively. This meant that the English Church shouldn't be changed as it was a holy place and was thought of to be God's The English Church shall be free, should have its rights untouched and should have its liberties kept Clause 40 "To no one will we sell, to no deny or delay right or justice" Without this law, people would remain unequal in their rights as they were before human rights This law is important because it is the basis of human rights "First, that we have granted to God" “No free man shall be seized or imprisoned, or stripped of his rights or possessions, or outlawed or exiled, or deprived of his standing in any other way, nor will we proceed with force against him, or send others to do so, except by the lawful judgment of his equals or by the law of the land" Article 5: "No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment of punishment." This clause prevents people from selling their rights and prevents people from denying their rights As this document was created (or signed at least) in what we now call the United Kingdom, I would say this statement is half right. I wouldn’t agree that human rights were originated in the west as most countries had their own versions of it such as Greeks and Romans which are both located in the east or closer along the Prime Meridian (the line of longitude said to be 0 degrees). This means they definitely were supported by other places around the world. The group rights are article 19-24 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights (Charter). They provide a legal and political framework for opposing abusive use of power by other groups or the government. Using this Charter one group of peoples can defend themselves legally in an International Court over any of the rights stated in this Charter. Peoples rights have the same role in Africa in that they function as a way that protects one group against violent or unfair acts that are against the well being of any peoples. What three arguments can be made in the favour of the African concept of group rights? One: Oppression Two: Politically Three: Economically The government or another group cannot pocket wealth if resources are taken, sold or used The government or another group cannot force a group off their land or ruin that land environmentally without compensation Peoples rights are important in the establishment of a peoples to exist A group of people cannot be colonized, where in early times a government form one country went in and forced that country's government out of power and established themselves as the ruling government with all the rights to exploit the resources for the people in another country When every group has equal rights, any acts of the goverment must be a compromise between all the groups Peoples rights are instrumental in making a government amendable to the will of its peoples. Through peoples rights, peoples are assured of their right to participate and be represented in the government of their country Under the Charter every group of peoples has the right to exist and the right to decide what makes up their group of peoples, like their language, religion and values This prevents one dominant group, politically or economically, from imposin a national culture or language on another group The colonized peoples have the right to resort to any means recognized internationally to rid themselves of the oppression Peoples rights ensure that the resources of a country are not exploited without all the peoples of the country benefitting When every group in a country has equal rights, any acts of the government must be a compromise between all the groups The government cannot sell resources for money or goods to another country or company without providing a benefit to the people Cultural Relativism states that you cannot judge or question the culture of others if you have not lived in that culture. We are not free to decide what is civilized and what is uncivilized in other cultures. Kant states, that our ideas of the world come to us through our perception of the world which is limited by the culture we are in. This means that we cannot judge another cultures customs to be wrong or evil just because they conflict with our cultures beliefs. Currently in Ontario there are 3 people on trial for honor killings. Because Canada is a multicultural country, when immigrants come we tell them that their culture is as valid and legitimate as Canadian culture and allow them to keep their own culture. Although honor killings are not accepted in Canada, when an issue like this arises who are we to judge that this wrong when all cultures are of equal value to Canadian culture and just as right. Because of Cultural Relativism how can we judge these honor killings to be wrong when honor killings are valid and accepted in the culture of those who committed them. We have to be tolerant of intolerant things. If you are going to accept Cultural Relativism you must be prepared to validate habits in another society. What is considered moral in one society may be considered immoral in another society. Cultural Relativism tells us that no one has the right to judge another societies customs. In the Western world we believe that the Islamic Extremists idea of suicide bombing of civilians is evil, yet Jihad is as valid a belief in Islam as the belief that all human lives are valuable in western culture. Human Sacrifice was a valid practice in Aztec society and unless we could recreate the entire Aztec society we have no way of knowing the purpose it served. According to Sharia, women are disqualified from holding public office because this would involve them having authority over men. Verse 4:34 of the Quran states that men are entitled to exert authority over women, but women cannot exercise authority over men. Two: Three: One: Verse 4:3 of the Quran is interpreted as men have the right to marry up to four wives and the power to exercise complete control over them during marriage. Verse 4:34 above, gives the man the authority to punish his wives by hitting them if necessary. A husband is allowed to divorce any of his wives at his preference but the wives are not entitled to a divorce except on specific and limited grounds. Another principle of Sharia that effects the status of Muslim women is the Hijab. This is more than requiring a women to cover their faces and bodies in public. Sharia interpretation of verses 33:33 (“And stay quietly in your houses and make not a dazzling display like that of the former times of ignorance.”) and 33:59 (“Tell thy wives and daughters and the believing women that they should cast their outer garments over their persons.”) state that women are supposed to stay at home and not leave. When they are permitted to leave they must be fully covered and escorted by a guardian who is a male. They must not mix with men in public places and this excludes them from participation in public life. The most important general principle of Sharia Law influencing the status and rights of women is Qawama. Qawama has its origins in verse 4:34 of the Quran, “Men have Qawama [guardianship and authority] over women because of the advantage they [men] have over them [women] and because they [men] spend their property in supporting them [women]... As for those women whose nushuz you have reason to fear, remind them; then leave them alone in bed; then hit them; and if there upon they pay you heed do not seek to harm them.” According to Sharia interpretation of this verse, men as a group are the guardians of and superior to women as a group. Conversion from Islam to any other religion or atheism is forbidden. “It is prohibited to exercise any form of compulsion on man or to exploit his poverty or ignorance in order to convert him to another religion or to atheism,” as stated by the Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam. This is known as Apostasy and it or any actions or statements against Islam religion are considered blasphemous and is harshly punished. Simply drawing a picture/likeness of Mohammed is considered blasphemous and can lead to death. In 2008 12 cartoons of Mohammed were published in a Danish newspaper and resulted in the death of the editor by an Islamist extremist. Other verses in the Quran provide freedom of choice in religious beliefs such as verse 18:29, “Say, the trust is from your lord. Let him who will believe, and let him who will reject.” This quote demonstrates religious tolerance and in order to make sharia law consistent with Universal Human Rights people need to choose to interpret these verse instead of other verses such as 9:29 that is the foundation for the ideas of discrimination against non-muslims. Under Article 22 of the Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam (Sharia) a person may only express their opinion in a manner “as would not be contrary to the principles of the Shariah.” Freedom of expression may not be used to “weaken faith”. Muslim members of the UN pushed through an amendment to article 19 that restrains freedom of expression, “for respect of religions and belief,” respect not have been defined. It is now up to the state to decide upon any show of disrespect against a religion subject to what their definition of respect is. In a theological state like Iran, any presentation against the rulers of the country, being religious rulers, can lead to punishments and arrest. All citizens excluding the rulers, lose the right for protection from the state and for freedom of expression. To make this compatible with Universal Human Rights citizens need to be granted freedom of expression to be used in responsible ways, (no yelling fire in a movie theater) without limitations. Under sharia Law, muslim and non-muslim women are not granted equal treatment with muslim men. Sharia law in Lebanon gives fathers or other male members of a family complete custody of children over seven. A muslim woman in Britain is seeking refuge from a muslim man in Lebanon who beat her, threw her off a balcony and attempted to strangle her. She wants asylum in the UK to avoid the conditions of sharia law she would be subject to in Lebanon. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights gives her the right of security and family rights. These rights need to be recognized in accordance to sharia law in order to make it consistent with Universal Human Rights. Women’s rights are limited in many Islam countries as they are treated as second class citizens. In Pakistan and Nigeria women who are raped are prosecuted under sharia law for fornication. In Saudi Arabia a woman is not allowed to drive, leave her house without a guardian and is not allowed access to education and healthcare. In 2000, Saudi Arabia signed the “2000 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Violence Against Women.” (EDAW) Although they signed it, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia added one specification in article 9, paragraph 2, which states, “State parties shall grant women equal rights with men.” They added to the provision “In case of contradiction between any term in the convention and the Norms of Islamic law, the Kingdom is not under obligation to observe the contradictory terms of the Convention.” This added section limits women’s rights to be equal with men in Saudi Arabia under sharia law, which the Universal Declaration of Human Rights grants to women. In order to make sharia law consistent with universal human rights the added provision needs to be taken out of the Convention in order to make women equal to men. eminism The movements ideological roots are from France. “I only know that people call me a feminist whenever I express sentiments that differentiate me from a doormat.” - Rebecca West, 20th century British novelist and journalist. 1610 1789 1774 is a concept that was present from the beginning of time, although it only came relevant in the 18th century during the Revolutionary War. F A French noblewman started the first salon outside of the royal court At the time of opening the salon, women's value and role in society was outlined by the querelle des femme/question of the women This outlined education, marriage and social mobility relating to women Querelle des Femme
'Question of the Women' Revolutionary War French Revolution This advanced the concept of women's freedom Both the Revolutionary War and the French Revolution focused on mankind’s equality but women’s equality wasn’t highlighted. Although by mobilizing more women politically and establishing a sense of free as a human right prepared everyone for the movement of feminism Mary Wollstonecraft published a book on the rights of women. The “Vindication of the Rights of Women” argued for the education equality of women, and allowing them to become independent and a whole part of society. She argued that the current education systems restricted women’s potential of benefiting society along with family and home life. This book was the first to clearly outline a push for change, it was also used by early feminists as a guide for their journey. Feminists challenged the suffrage movement as it had only accomplished women’s right to vote and not much more. Women would still be able to be sold by their husbands and held no authority in the home, over their children and would not have the opportunity to partake in high-level education. Women's suffrage and the movement of feminism both fought for the greater good of equality for women The suffrage movement focused only on the women's right to vote The feminist movement focused on middle-upper class white women and political equality, social and cultural inequalities, and campaigning for a greater influence in politics Suffragette Feminism versus The main reason why the feminists regarded the suffragette movements’ accomplishments as inadequate is because suffragettes only focused on the voting perspective, if the location they were living in even had voting. Many suffragists did not refer to themselves as feminists, mainly becuase they fought for the right to vote and not for complete equality for women. The Suffragette movement also didn't focus on younger girls, who coult not vote and would still be at the bottom of societies totem pole I agree with the statement “women suffer far greater human rights violations than men.” but only to a small extent. I do not agree with the part of the statement “suffer far greater” because I don’t think women suffer far greater than men, only slightly suffer more than men. Everyday girls and women are the focal point of jokes regarding their gender but I believe men are more objected to forced physical labor. Men are expected to be the provider and women are expected to be the homemaker. Both have stereotypes but I find that the stereotype of women is more relevant in society than the men stereotype, for example the sayings “make me a sandwich” or “get back in the kitchen”, among others. On the other side of the fence, men aren’t completely safe from abuse. In fact in 100 abusive situations, approximately 40 cases are women abusing men. Men in third world countries are subject to physically demanding labor in a effort to provide a decent life for their families. I believe women have always had more human violations than men. Women in Saudi Arabia suffer many violations, such as minimum say in politics, etc. The work force is made up of mainly men, as many of the women are told to stay home and take care of the household. Women have almost always had to fight for their rights (ex. right to vote) 'Women suffer far greater human rights violations than men.’ To what extent to agree with this statement? Human Rights in the World Tyler, Julia, Gillian, Sejal & Mikaela The League of Nations (LON) was an intergovernmental organization, much like an unsuccessful version of the United Nations (UN) It was founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first permanent international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace and prevent another war; but things didn't go as planned. Another one of the LON’s goals were that no one nation would be able to dominate smaller/weaker neighbours because those neighbouring nations would be able to call on the LON for support. Its ‘Covenant’ stated some primary goals which included – using collective security and disarmament to prevent war, and settling international disputes through negotiation. Other issues (in this and related treaties) included-
 labour conditions
 just treatment of native inhabitants
 human and drug trafficking
 arms trade
 global health
 prisoners of war
 protection of minorities in Europe.
The League of Nations had three official languages – English, French and Spanish.  The LON had no military backing to enforce any action that it might need to take. For example when Manchuria was invaded by Japan, in 1931, other countries were reluctant to get involved because China was not in their sphere of influence. Japan simply ignored the threat of LON sanctions and withdrew from the LON. Thus, the LON was not taken seriously.

 The U.S was not part of the LON. As a quickly expanding superpower, the US wanted it both ways, to be able to export to the world, but not to participate in the global community. The military power of the U.S was needed by Europe and Asia, to back up sanctions and the threat of military action, but the US was going through a policy of isolationism.

 When the structural weaknesses became apparent, strong nations left the LON (ex - Germany, Japan) and simply ignored the sanctions imposed. The remaining nations, mainly France and Britain, realized that getting the organization to do anything took too much time, and preferred direct diplomacy (or international relations) with Germany, evading the LON altogether. A League of Nations mandate was basically a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another after World War I, or the legal “instruments” that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for managing the territory on behalf of the League. The mandate system was established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. With the disintegration of the League of Nations after World War II, it was specified (at the Yalta Conference) that the remaining Mandates would be placed under the trusteeship of the United Nations, thus future discussions and formal agreements would now be under the UN. Class A Mandate Class B Mandate Class C Mandate These were territories formerly controlle by the Ottoman Empire Mesopotamia (UK)
Palestine Syria These were all former Schutzgebiete (German Territories) in the West and Central Africa Ruanda-Urundi (Belgium)
Tanganyika (UK Kamerun
Togoland These were former German possesions: former German New Guinea became the Territory of New Guinea (Australis/UK) Nauru
South-West Africa South Pacific Mandate The League of Nations mandate system was established after World War I to manage former territories of the German and Ottoman empires Until World War I, the victors of most European wars took control of defeated territories as their “conquered lands” of victory. This was especially true of the colonial territories of defeated European powers, as the victors sought to expand their own empires. After World War I, a significant break in this tradition was made. While Britain, France, Italy, and Japan still had imperial goals, other forces tempered these goals. The United States emerged as a world power, committed to an anti-imperial policy, which sought to consider the national aspirations of indigenous peoples as well as the imperial agendas of the victors. “The 5th of November, 1918 pre-armistice statement of the Allies, affirmed that annexation of territory was not their aim for ending the war”. – Gale Encyclopedia of the Mideast & North Africa. The result was the mandate system of the League of Nations, established by the treaties ending World War I. Under this system, the victors of World War I were given the responsibility of governing former German and Ottoman territories as mandates from the League. The ultimate goal was – the development of each mandate toward eventual independence. The League of Nations stopped countries such as Britain, France, Italy and Japan from taking control over their conquered lands. If they had taken over those lands, it is most likely they would have forced assimilation onto the people, and it is also possible that many of the cultures and traditions of the people would be taken away from them. There is no guarantee that people would be provided with good lives and would be treated as equals to the ruling country’s people. The rights of the indigenous people of the conquered territories would be infringed upon, and the League of Nations attempted to prevent this from happening. Once the anti-imperial policy was committed to, the rights of the people were considered as well as the countries that now had “control” over them. Instead of treating the area of conquered land as something they “owned or won”, they were now to govern the former German and Ottoman territories and hopefully bring the mandates and territories to their eventual independence. The fourth convention is the convention relative to the protection of civilian persons in time of war. The previous Geneva conventions were concerned with combatants only, not civilians. This convention mostly focuses on the regulations governing the status and treatment of civilians, which distinguish between the situation of foreigners and the citizens in the territory. This convention also focuses on general provisions and protection of populations against certain consequences of war. The status and treatment of these protected person, which includes the provisions common to the territories of the parties to the conflict, to occupied territories and collective punishment and occupied territories. It also focuses on the execution of these conventions. The Geneva Conventions are the core of international humanitarian law. It’s the body of international law that regulates the conduct of armed conflict and seeks to limit its effects. They protect people that aren’t taking part in hostilities and those who are no longer participating in the hostilities 1. 2. 3. 4. The first convention is the convention for the amelioration of the condition of the wounded and sick in armed forces in the field. It defines ‘the basis on which rest the rules of international law for the protection of the victims of armed conflicts.’ Wounded and sick soldiers who are out of the battle are to be humanely treated. They can’t be killed, injured, tortured or subjected to biological experimentation. Wounded and sick soldiers should be collected, cared for, and protected. The International Red Cross or any other impartial humanitarian organization may provide protection and relief for wounded and sick soldiers as well as medical and religious personnel. The second convention is the convention for the amelioration of the condition of wounded, sick and shipwrecked members of armed forces at sea. It is to protect and care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked. An article also allows appeals to be made to neutral vessels to help collect and care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked. The neutral vessels can’t be captured. It also protects religious and medical personnel serving on a combat ship. Hospital ships can’t be used for military purpose and cannot be attacked/captured. The third convention is the convention relative to the treatment of prisoners of war. This contains 143 articles. This convention establishes the principle that prisoners of war shall be released and repatriated without delay after the cessation of active hostilities. This convention focuses on the general provisions and protection of prisoners of war, captivity and the termination of captivity, the information bureau and relief societies for prisoners of war and the execution of the convention. Crimes Against Peace War Crimes Crimes Against Humanity Planning, preparing, initiating or waging of a war of aggression, or a war in violation of international treaties, agreements or assurances, or participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of any of the foregoing Violations of the laws or customs of war. Such violations shall include, but not be limited to, murder, ill-treatment or deportation to slave labour or for any other purpose of civilian population of or in occupied territory, murder or ill-treatment of prisoners of war or persons on the seas, killing of hostages, plunder of public or private property, wanton destruction of cities, towns or villages, or devastation not justified by military necessity Murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation or other inhumane acts committed against any civilian population before or during the war; or persecutions on political, racial or religious grounds in execution of or in connection with any crime within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal, whether or not in violation of the domestic law of the country where perpetrated. An amendment to the Geneva Convention relating to the protections of victims of non-international armed conflicts. It defines certain international laws that strive to provide better protection of the victims of internal armed conflicts that take place within the borders of a single country. The scope of these laws is more limited out of respect for sovereign rights and duties of national governments. US Breaches The Protocols The US has broken many Geneva Conventions in the invading and occupation of Iraq. The US has been reported to have had 3 500 Iraqi prisoners of war Protocol I Protocol II An amendment to the Geneva Conventions relating to the protection of victims of international armed conflicts. It reaffirms the international laws of the original Geneva Conventions of 1949 and adds clarifications and new provisions to accommodate developments in the modern international warfare that have taken place since the WWII What was the League of Nations? Why was the League of Nations unsuccessful? Iraqi Breaches The Iraq forces used human shields such as civilians, women and children as shields from the attacking Marines. This violates the fourth Geneva conventions, which protects the rights of civilians in the time of conflict. While it is OK to capture and hold prisoners of war, the 3rd Geneva Convention outlines that it is not permitted to photograph or embarass prisoners of war. Many Iraqi prisoners of war have had their images and names released The US forces had also used depleted uranium coated weapons, breaching the Geneva Conventions. Two thousand tonnes of depleted uranium were dropped on Iraq. There have been accounts of people such as Janis Karpinski, who was in charge of 17 prison facilities in Iraq Karpinski signed a memo approving torture techniques. This ranged from sleep deprivation, stress positions and meal disruption to leaving the lights on all night while playing loud music and insulting their religion, culture and beliefs. There have also been reports and articles that revealed that the Bush administration and ‘senior leadership’ had knowledge and approved of torture policies. The US forces had operations that destroyed two hospitals and denied medical assistance to civilians, a breach in the fouth convention protecting the civilian persons in times of war There have also been the bombing of innocent civilians International humanitarian law has given special protection to certain facilities in cities such as hospitals, places of worship and cultural property. However, Iraqi forces used these places to set up military bases. They used al-Nasiriyya Surgical Hospital and the Baghdad Red Crescent Maternity Hospital and threatened doctors. The Iraqi armed forces also protected themselves by establishing positions in mosques. Because of this, many mosques and religious property have been damaged. The Iraqi forces also wore civilian clothing, which also put civilians at risk. The Iraqi forces violated the Geneva conventions by abusing the Red Cross and Red Crescent emblems. These emblems are used to identify and protect medical personnel, building and equipment. However, the Iraqi forces used ambulances with the Red Cross symbols as a cover to get into the field of battle. The use of these symbols violates the prohibition on abuse of the emblem. International humanitarian law has prohibited the improper use of these emblems for many years. The Iraqi forces also captured and interviewed five prisoners of war, which is a violation of the third Geneva Convention, which protects the rights of prisoners of war. Traditionally in Africa, group rights are a strong aspect of their culture. The African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights is the only charter in the world that recognizes group rights. All African countries except Morocco signed the charter. Group or peoples rights are mentioned from article 19-24. Even though group rights hold importance individual rights are still relevant in a communal setting. Collective rights serve no purpose if individuals do not benefit from them equally. Even in historical Africa, collective rights did not benefit everyone equally, the leaders of the tribe and their families lived above the rest. 2. First of all in a dictatorship most of the economic profit of the country is not redistributed to the people, it ends up in the bank accounts of the ruling elite class. Some countries in Africa have been economically successful but still have poor human rights records. There are few countries with better economic development per capita than Saudi Arabia, yet they still have poor human rights. “The group is more important than the individual, decisions are made by consensus rather than competition and economic surpluses are generated and disposed of on a redistributive than profit oriented basis.” (Everyone benefits) 1. “Human Rights can be granted to people only through national economic development.” Many leaders of African states consider individual rights meaningless because collective rights benefit all people equally. They regard the peoples right of development, (article 22) as the most important before achieving other rights. This is because the economic development in poor countries is necessary for social well being and political stability. The corrupted leaders, often dictators, tell the people of the country that they need economic development to build the social, political, civil and cultural institutions and processes before the countries are secure enough to support the government giving the people more individual rights. The leaders give the impression that the government has and controls human rights and has the ability to grant them to the people when the time is right, like after all the oil has been sold the money is in the leaders bank account. Looking back, many African countries only made the decision to include universal human rights in their constitutions for the purpose of being recognized and accepted into the League of Nations. The rights were not put in as a way to protect the human rights of the citizens of the countries. is a moral code and a religious law of Islam. It is not a legal code. This law is the interpretations of the meaning of the Quran and Sunna by individual jurists. The two sources for sharia law are the Quran, the literal and final word of God, and the Sunna which is the actions and statements of Mohammed during his mission from 610-632 AD. Sharia law deals with topics addressing crime, politics, economics, and personal matters such as sex, hygiene, diet, prayer and fasting. Sharia Law After Iran was criticized the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for its failure to take into account the cultural and religious context of non-western cultures, Islam nations decided to create their own. This declaration is called the Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam. Section 24 of the Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam states that, “All the rights and freedoms situated in this Declaration are subject to the Islamic Sharia.” This means that Islamic nations place sharia law above human rights. For instance article 6 of the Declaration states, “A women is equal to a man in human dignity,” yet verse 4:32 of the Quran which sharia law is based on states, “And to long for that with which Allah has preferred some of you above others,” meaning that god favors men over women in the Islamic holy book and is practiced today in Islamic countries. What is in practice today in Islamic countries is that men are superior to women and non-Muslims because Sharia law overrides the human rights granted in the Declaration. (I use this only as an example not to critique Islam Religion)
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