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Causes of World War Two
Transcript of Causes of World War Two
1. The War Guilt Clause: Germany was blamed for WWI
2. Reparations: Germany was ordered to pay £6,600 mil for the damage caused during WWI.
3. Germany lost territory: including the Rhineland, the 'Polish Corridor', Alsace Lorraine, the Saar, and all colonies.
4. Disarmament: Germany was given military restrictions
(army limited to 100,000 men, tiny navy with no submarines, no air force, the Rhineland was de-militarized).
The League of Nations
- Set up by the Treaty of Versailles to keep world peace.
- Not all countries joined the League (Germany was banned-US does not join).
-Americans wanted nothing to do with the League because we believed joining would give our sovereignty away to International Courts, Tribunals and Armies
1931 Japan invaded Manchuria (an area in China)--Japan left the League
1935 Italy invaded Abyssinia (modern day Ethiopia). League does nothing - no backbone
Why was the failure of appeasement a cause of WW2?
Woodrow Wilson Proposed
14 Idealistic Points
None of them were agreed to with
the exception of one:
The League of Nations
Why was the Treaty of Versailles a cause of WWII?
The Rise of The Dictators
By 1922 Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy
The symbol of Fascism=Central control by a government
Goal is to protect the middle class & property.
Private Ownership remains vs Communism (no property held by anyone)
Mussolini rules Italy from 1922 to 1943 (when he is killed during World War II)
Mussolini established Fascism in Italy-
20 million Italians left Italy since 1880 because of intense poverty and lawlessness (Mafia)
They desire a savior for their country.
After World War I--Germany was economically devastated, people starved. Money became so inflated (Hyperinflation) that it became worthless.
Germans literally wallpapered their homes with
worthless paper money.
It is called Hyperinflation: prices rise and what was worth $1.00 later costs $1000.00.
How shocking would it be if you had saved $100,000 for retirement and then, that is what it costs to buy a cup of coffee???
Map of Germany 1913
Fascism fought the chaos and unrest that Unions and the forces of Communism had brought to Italy.
Strike after strike had frozen manufacturing and production
Many Italians look back at the order and prosperity of the 1930 fondly
Fascism was anti-communist
Following the overthrow of Russia, Communists tried to take over all of Europe
Mussolini promises full employment and social security
Promises to bring Italy back to the glory of Rome & get the trains to run on time!
He outlawed: unions, strikes, riots
Mussolini and his government authorities kept private enterprise but had to follow government rules and regulation
Money became worthless
because the government would just
print more to "stimulate" the economy.
The Japanese invaded Korea and China(Manchuria in 1931) Why?
--Just like Germany they had serious financial problems and they needed to import almost all of their goods.
How did the Treaty of Versailles punish Germany?
Germany: Lost land, and
believed it had lost the war
because of traitors.
Franklin Roosevelt was elected to address the financial issues brought about by the Stock Market crash and the Great Depression.
His most pressing problems are Financial=New Deal
After World War I: Americans had no desire to be involved with Europe.
They wanted Neutrality
Stay neutral or get involved
just like WWI??
Most Americans are against getting
involved in a World War. Most are primarily concerned with economics and the situation at home.
What brings about World War II for Americans?
The Japanese Emperor Hirohito is honored and revered, and considered God on Earth
Until the end of WWII, no Japanese citizen had ever heard the voice of the Emperor-the Emperor is a student of History and reads Alfred T. Mahan.
Weimar Republic was a time of instability
-Communists took over unions, thousands starved
-Germans were angry
Hideki Tojo is the military leader
of Japan. He rules all of Japan as the military dictator. It is a totalitarian state-Tojo runs the police-the military-everything
It is a continuation of the Samurai Honor Code and system set centuries before.
Surrender is not an option for Tojo
Franklin Roosevelt is aware of conflicts around the world.
It is the rise of Dictators that alarms him.
And he wants to help but avoid war.
Congress passes The Neutrality Act of 1935
**Illegal to sell Arms to any country at War
Rome Berlin and Tokyo
The Axis Powers
The Tripartite Act-Germany, Italy and Japan.
Hitler's glee is plain to see
His plan to divide the world and take on the British and the USA are in place.
The Causes of
World War II
The War in Europe
has already started:
Germany has attacked Poland, France and now threatens Great Britain.
On December 9th, 1941 Germany Declares war on the USA.
This is Neville Chamberlain
He believes if you give a
Dictator what he wants then
they will be nice and will go
away--this is called "Appeasement."
He writes a peace pact with Hitler that Hitler quickly breaks by attacking Great Britain in the Battle of Britain.
This is Winston Churchill-his Mother is American-his Father is a Nobleman and a leader in Parliament. He has been Secretary of the Navy, a member of Parliament for 40 years and after the failure of Neville Chamberlain, he is elected Prime Minister.
Several notes about Churchill
1. The day the stock market
crashes-he is on the floor of the
1. Germany had a severely limited military
and no bomb-making abilities
2. Colonies were taken away
3. Reparations paid