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Period 6: Accelerating Global Change and Realignments, c. 19
Transcript of Period 6: Accelerating Global Change and Realignments, c. 19
Science and the Environment
Period 6: Accelerating Global Change and Realignments, c. 1900 to Present
Key Concept 6.2
Global Conflicts and their consequences
Key Concept 6.3
New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society, and Culture
New modes of communication and transportation virtually eliminated the problem of geographic distance.
Researchers developed new ways of quickly transporting data and information over long distances. They facilitated communication by the usage of automobiles, email, planes, and telephones. It caused unpredicted population growth. Wars and breakouts were a lot easier to handle and leaders had an option to print, receive, and transport materials and information faster than ever before.
New scientific paradigms transformed human understanding of the world (such as the theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, the Big Bang theory or psychology).
The human mind was expanding, and creating new revolutionary concepts. Most famously, Albert Einstein, was a large contributor producing the theory of relativity. The paradigms are still being used to this day, and gave way to new technological advances. Challenging concepts created a new world for scientists.
The Green Revolution produced food for the earth’s growing population as it spread chemically and genetically enhanced forms of agriculture.
Food products being shipped around the world were increasingly being more chemically altered. This was large cause in population growth, and genetically mutated organisms. It increased populations from 2.5 billion in 1950, to 7 billion in 2010. Food had been changed and the genetically altered food was causing health issues, but increasing populations in the billions.
Medical innovations (such as the polio vaccine, antibiotics or the artificial heart) increased the ability of humans to survive.
Marketing for new medicines increased the world's population, because people gained encouragement to treat illnesses and new profound studies were completed. Advanced researchers like Willem Kolff, who transplants artificial hearts, brought new technological advances changing medicine forever.
New energy technologies (such as the use of oil or nuclear power) raised productivity and increased the production of material goods.
Large steam power plants were built all over to facilitate the production of goods. Jobs were created to help use these plants and drills, as well as new income to provide to ship the raw materials in trade. Nuclear power was a large global threat and was a large want from many nations to obtain nuclear power for warfare and safety.
Humans exploited and competed over the earth’s finite resources more intensely than ever before in human history.
Wars, conflicts, and tensions were created over which empire could access one of Earth's valuable resources first. Technology was advanced in order to obtain these resources in the first place. The resources include oil, land, and minerals.
Global warming was a major consequence of the release of greenhouse gases and other pollutants into the atmosphere.
Climate changes was a result of many power plants, drills, and harmful environmental instruments being placed. Greenhouse gases became a large issue, growing in magnitude during this time. Technology was advancing to detect problems like these. Groups and organizations teaming together to raise awareness of global warming and pollution to attempt to end it.
Pollution threatened the world’s supply of water and clean air. Deforestation and desertification were continued consequences of the human impact on the environment. Rates of extinction of other species accelerated sharply.
A. Diseases associated with poverty (such as malaria, tuberculosis or cholera) persisted, while other diseases (such as the 1919 influenza pandemic, ebola or HIV/AIDS) emerged as new epidemics and threats to human survival. In addition, changing lifestyles and increased longevity led to higher incidence of certain diseases (such as diabetes, heart disease or Alzheimer’s disease).
B. More effective forms of birth control gave women greater control over fertility and transformed sexual practices.
C. Improved military technology (such as tanks, airplanes or the atomic bomb) and new tactics (such as trench warfare or firebombing) led to increased levels of wartime casualties (such as Nanjing, Dresden or Hiroshima).
Populations of many animals including the Cape Lion and the Golden Toad were wiped out. The effect of humans on the environment damaged ecosystems, leaving habitats empty with no sustainable lifeforms. Areas were cleared out to form new cities, plants, and human-made places.
The high growth of the fresh supply of clean water and air increased bacterial contamination. The human population experienced a decline due to this. Lifestyles were changed, for when you reached certain ages, new and threatening diseases would make you at risk. Unsanitary workplaces, environments, and resources contributed as well.
Women began to use a new form of birth control: the pill. The pill was revolutionary, and was the most effective way. Time magazine was one of the first to explain why birth control was able to be efficiently regulated. Couples changed their relationships around this new concept.
The new technological advances in warfare created more violent wars in the future. Wars were made longer, and therefore causing more casualties, the world's population was lessened.
A. Older land-based empires (such as the Ottoman, Russian or the Qing) collapsed due to a combination of internal and external factors (such as economic hardship, political and social discontent, technological stagnation or military defeat).
B. Some colonies negotiated their independence (such as India or the Gold Coast from the British Empire).
C. Some colonies achieved independence through armed struggle (such as Algeria and Vietnam from the French empire or Angola from the Portuguese empire).
A. Nationalist leaders (such as Mohandas Gandhi, Ho Chi Minh or Kwame Nkrumah) in Asia and Africa challenged imperial rule
B. Regional, religious and ethnic movements (such as that of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Quebecois separatist movement or the Biafra secessionist movement) challenged both colonial rule and inherited imperial boundaries.
C. Transnational movements (such as communism, Pan-Arabism or Pan-Africanism) sought to unite people across national boundaries.
D. Within states in Africa, Asia and Latin America, movements promoted communism and socialism as a way to redistribute land and resources.
A. The redrawing of old colonial boundaries led to population resettlements (such as the India/Pakistan partition, the Zionist Jewish settlement of Palestine or the division of the Middle East into mandatory states).
Many times in history, old empires are replaced by new ones that may differ and create conflicts in the surrounding area. Communists, Nationalists, and China's revolutions changed governments and revolts forever. Humans began to become disconnected and tensions arose. Chinese had a large problem with political and social contact, and their society fell apart.
The Indian Independence Movement was aiming to end the first East India Company rule, then the British Raj. It began militant movements, but transitioned to political. It formed the Indian Civil Service. The Kingdom of Ghana ended up requesting independence within the British Commonwealth. The government accepted the motion, peacefully, and negotiated a resolution that pleased both sides.
The Algerian War of Independence was between Algeria and France, which was a decolonization war. Vietnam also known as Second Indochina War. The two wars were violent trying to break away from France. Angolan War of Independence began as an uprising against cotton, and fought violently against Portugal's Overseas Province of Angola.
Gandhi was a great example of nonviolent protests that are still revered throughout the world today. He peacefully represented India's poor. Ho Chi Minh led the Vietnamese nationalist movement fighting against the Japanese. Kwame Nkrumah shepherded Ghana through its struggle for independence from Great Britian and was named president for life.
Muhammad was Pakistan's leader of All-India Muslim League and founding father of Pakistan. The Quebec Sovereignty Movement is a political movement as an ideology of values that advocate sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec. The Biafra Secessionist Movement that peacefully secured the resurgence of Biafra from Nigeria.
Communism was a widespread idea that was seeping into many countries in Europe and Africa. Communism was a way to re-establish the economy and government of falling behind countries. Most communist leader's promises were never carried through. Pan-Africanism is the ideology and movement to solidify Africa. Pan-Arabianism is the movement to unify North Africa and West Africa to the Arabian Sea or Arab World.
Socialism and communist leaders sought to obtain more land, and so to redistribute wealth and make matters more equal, land redistribution is a key way to divide riches and resources among nations.
The redrawing of old and ancient colonial boundaries brought up problems with many nations. The India/Pakistan partition was led by the British to create sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan and the Union of India. The Zionist Jewish settlement of Palestine assisted persecuted Jews to move to Israel for convenience. The Middle East was divided by the League of Nations mandated for certain territories to be transferred legally to another nations control over a certain area.
B. The migration of former colonial subjects to imperial metropoles (such as South Asians to Britain, Algerians to France or Filipinos to the United States) maintained cultural and economic ties between the colony and the metropole even after the dissolution of empires.
C. The proliferation of conflicts led to genocide (such as Armenia, the Holocaust, Cambodia or Rwanda) and the displacement of peoples resulting in refugee populations (such as the Palestinians or Darfurians).
A. World War I and World War II were the first “total wars.” Governments used ideologies, including fascism, nationalism and communism, to mobilize all of their state’s resources, including peoples, both in the home countries and the colonies or former colonies (such as the Gurkha soldiers in India or the ANZAC troops in Australia), for the purpose of waging war. Governments also used a variety of strategies, including political speeches, art, media and intensified forms of nationalism, to mobilize these populations.
I: Researchers made rapid advances in science that spread throughout the world, assisted by the development of new technology.
II: Humans fundamentally changed their relationship with the environment.
III: Disease, scientific innovations and conflict led to demographic shifts.
I: Europe dominated the global political order at the beginning of the 20th century, but both land-based and transoceanic empires gave way to new forms of transregional political organization by the century’s end.
II: Emerging ideologies of anti-imperialism contributed to the dissolution of Empires.
III: Political changes were accompanied by major demographic and social consequences.
IV. Military conflicts occurred on an unprecedented global scale.
V. Although conflict dominated much of the 20th century, many individuals and groups — including states — opposed this trend. Some individuals and groups, however, intensified the conflicts.
B. The varied sources of global conflict in the first half of the century included: imperialist expansion by European powers and Japan, competition for resources, ethnic conflict, great power rivalries between Great Britain and Germany, nationalist ideologies, and the economic crisis engendered by the Great Depression.
C. The global balance of economic and political power shifted after the end of World War II and rapidly evolved into the Cold War. The United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers, which led to ideological struggles between capitalism and communism throughout the globe.
D. The Cold War produced new military alliances, including NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and promoted proxy wars in Latin America, Africa and Asia.
E. The dissolution of the Soviet Union effectively ended the Cold War.
A. Groups and individuals challenged the many wars of the century (such as Picasso in his Guernica, the antinuclear movement during the Cold War or Thich Quang Duc by self-immolation), and some promoted the practice of nonviolence (such as Tolstoy, Gandhi or Martin Luther King) as a way to bring about political change.
B. Groups and individuals opposed and promoted alternatives to the existing economic, political and social orders (such as the Non-Aligned Movement, which presented an alternative political bloc to the Cold War; the Tiananmen Square protesters that promoted democracy in China; the Anti-Apartheid Movement; or participants in the global uprisings of 1968).
C. Militaries and militarized states often responded to the proliferation of conflicts in ways that further intensified conflict (such as the promotion of military dictatorship in Chile, Spain and Uganda; the United States’ promotion of a New World Order after the Cold War; or the buildup of the “military-industrial complex” and arms trading).
D. More movements (such as the IRA, ETA or Al-Qaeda) used terrorism to achieve political aims.
E. Global conflicts had a profound influence on popular culture (such as Dada, James Bond, Socialist Realism or video games).
I: States, communities and individuals became increasingly interdependent, a process facilitated by the growth of institutions of global governance.
II: People conceptualized society and culture in new ways; some challenged old assumptions about race, class, gender and religion, often using new technologies to spread reconfigured traditions.
III: Popular and consumer culture became global.
A. New international organizations (such as the League of Nations or the United Nations) formed to maintain world peace and to facilitate international cooperation.
B. New economic institutions (such as the IMF, World Bank or WTO) sought to spread the principles and practices associated with free market economics throughout the world.
C. Humanitarian organizations (such as UNICEF, the Red Cross, Amnesty International, Doctors Without Borders or WHO) developed to respond to humanitarian crises throughout the world.
D. Regional trade agreements (such as the European Union, NAFTA, ASEAN or Mercosur) created regional trading blocs designed to promote the movement of capital and goods across national borders.
E. Multinational corporations (such as Royal Dutch Shell, Coca-Cola or Sony) began to challenge state authority and autonomy.
F. Movements throughout the world protested the inequality of environmental and economic consequences of global integration.
A. The notion of human rights gained traction throughout the world (such as the U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, women’s rights, or the end of the White Australia Policy).
B. Increased interactions among diverse peoples sometimes led to the formation of new cultural identities (such as negritude) and exclusionary reactions (such as xenophobia, race riots or citizenship restrictions).
C. Believers developed new forms of spirituality (such as New Age Religions, Hare Krishna or Falun Gong) and chose to emphasize particular aspects of practice within existing faiths and apply them to political issues (such as fundamentalist movements or Liberation Theology).
A. Sports were more widely practiced and reflected national and social aspirations (such as World Cup Soccer, the Olympics or cricket).
B. Changes in communication
Colonial subjects began to migrate to the metropolitan centers. South Asians migrated to Britain forming the term British Indian, including those born in the UK. The Filipinos who moved to America comprise of about 1.1% of the US population, and are a large economic and social part in the US. Each migrant held their ties to their ancestral homes as they went.
Armenia and Turkey are still in a feud to this day over how one committed a genocide to it's people, but it was never recognized. The Holocaust, a devastating killing of races, was a disgrace to everyone. In Rwanda 800,000 were killed because of the assassination of a president that resulted in a horrific and long genocide. Communist groups in Cambodia overthrew the government and everything spilled into a turbulent genocide. The Palestinians and Darfurians were placed in overcrowded refugee populations after feuds.
WWI and WWII changed the human race's ideology for a very long time. Countries were trying to protect themselves from events like world wars to start again. Men were being conscripted to fight in wars, and the worlds population was changed forever.
Imperialists and nationalists were emerging and taking their ideologies with them into their own countries. Competition for natural resources and manufacturing products increased. Ethnic classes clashed and divided. Great Britain and Germany still in feud after WWI, and the Great Depression hit leaving everyone vulnerable.
The Cold War as a silent state of political and military tension between nations. There was no actual warfare involved. It was tension between the powers in the Western Bloc (United States, its NATO allies and others) and the powers in the Eastern Bloc (Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact). These two groups feuded over capitalism and communism, which one is better.
NATO, or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, organized a military defense operation. If one of the members were to be attacked, equal support by other members would be provided. The Warsaw Pact, or the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation, and Mutual Assistance, was a collective military alliance among eight communist states also agreeing to back one another up in peril times.
On December 26th, 1991, the Cold War came to an end creating the Common Wealth of Independent States. The dissolution of the Soviet Union ended the Cold War. The revolutions of 1989 became at a larger scale, so that the Soviet Union slowed down its course, and drew up the Iron Curtain, ending the war.
Picasso painted an enormous black and white painting that was anti-war. Thich Quang Duc burned himself on a busy street to protest against the persecution of Buddhists by the Vietnamese government. Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. protested peacefully to change society and political standpoint from people.
The NAM are political states that chose not to be associated with any major bloc, but made their own. The protest in Tiananmen Square protest was a student-led protest exposing deep holes in China's government. Troops with assault rifles began to shoot down the students in the square who were unarmed. The Boycott Movement or the Anti-Apartheid movement was a British group protesting South Africa's apartheid system.
Francoist Spain was a time when Fransico took over Spain's government trying to make it into a dictatorship like what Hitler had with the Nazis. The U.S. promoted the New World Order in attempt to construct what they believe is the right order the world should be under. The build up of military complex comprised the political relationships between legislators, national armed forces, and the arms industry that supports them. Every nation was trying to rebuild and establish what they thought was the right way to control and govern.
The Irish Republican Party was created as a republic revolutionary military organization in the the independence of Ireland. The Euskadi Ta Askatasuna or ETA was established an armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization in France and Spain. Lastly Al-Qaeda is a global militant Islamist organization founded by Osama bin Laden with a base in the Soviet war in Afghanistan.
Dada was an art movement in Europe that spread around the globe and to the United States. James Bond, which was made into many mediums, was a British secret service agent assigned to many tasks involving other countries. Socialist Realism is a realistic style of art that was brought from the Soviets. Video games were inspired by many historical events some including violent war games imitating world wars.
The League of Nations was formed after WWI after the Paris Peace Conference. The United Nations is composed of 193 member states that maintain the world's peace after WWII. The International Criminal Court is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal, that protects people legally against war crimes, criminal acts, genocides, and wars. All three are precautionary programs to prevent history from repeating its self.
The International Monetary Fund fosters global growth and economic stability, and helps struggling third-world countries to gain economic growth. The World Bank is an United Nations international financial institution. It provides different types of loans to developing and struggling countries to help them climb out of poverty. Lastly, the World Trade Organization provides services to regulate world trade so countries cannot be taken advantage and to get products into the market. Each operation is a rebuild system to strengthen the economy.
The UNICEF, or United Nations Children's Fund, was produced to help parents and their children in developing countries. Amnesty is working on human rights and is against human slaves and promoting everyone's equal rights. The Red Cross is a global organization working on helping any country after a natural disaster, and donates blood to needed hospitals and humans after catastrophes. The WHO is based on global health and making sure that the common population is healthy and is aware of health risks and benefits. All these programs work to make the world healthier, cleaner, and economically stable.
The European Union is a politico-economic union in Europe that is held together by 28 states. Its goal is to decide on large intergovernmental decisions that are brought upon them. The North American Free Trade Agreement made trilateral rules-based trade bloc. Association of Southeast Asian Nations was made by ten Southeast nations to watch over Asia politically and economically. Mercosur is made of Latin American countries to form promoting free trade and boosting their economy.
Royal Dutch Shell is a gasoline selling company, Coca-Cola is a highly known drink producer, Sony is a large multimedia corporation. Each company has many advertisements and markets that they used to challenge state authority and autonomy.
Many movements including the Greenpeace (push for no nuclear warfare), The Green Belt Movement (to push women to better their livelihood and the environment around them), and Earth Day (goal is to globalize the awareness of pollution and the harm to the environment). Each organization was created to help humans gain awareness and take action against harming the environment for good.
The U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights was formed to state all human rights in preambles and articles. Women's rights were obtained in the last century so that women could be equal to men and had the right to vote. In many countries in the world women's rights are still not obtained. Australia used to restrict peoples immigration based on race, ethnicity, cultures, etc. The abolition of the "White Australia" Policy was enforced, so Australia now accepts any kind of identity.
Negritude was made by francophone black intellectuals, writers, and politicians in France. It was used against French elites who were demeaning to them. Xenophobia was a irrational fear of foreigners that eventually developed into hate making natives of countries hate outsiders. Race riots became very common because two races disagreed on an issue that was thought to be solved by unneeded violence. As a result, citizens were restricted, shackling more ethnic groups than ever before.
New Age religions are based from Western nations in the 1970's, which was emphasized by the holistic view of the cosmos. Hare Krishna, a Gaudiya Vaishnava religious organization based on Hinduism. Falun Gong is a mixture of meditation and qigong exercises with a philosophy focused on the tenets of Truthfulness, Compassion, and Forbearance. They apply those fundamentalist whose are ideologies are focused on a modernist theory, and liberation theories who make it centered around God and His fundamentals.
Sports became a widely watched and obsessed over pass-time for the world. The World Cup Soccer began in the 1930's and escalated to one of the most highly watched and attended programs, combining all nations to compete over a cup. The Olympics have always been a favorite even since Greek and Roman time periods. Global teams combined in many different sports to compete for titles and metals ever since. The ICC Cricket World Cup was introduced to have teams play for awards and is a hit in pass-times.
Music and film were widely spread across the globe, introducing new cultures and beats to new people. Hollywood introduced a spinoff so called "Bollywood". Reggae music was introduced, and people were engaged. Movies were made into adaptations from other countries, and cultures were emphasized to make new films and music. Technology advanced and soon enough the whole world is communicating through speedy hand-held devices.