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Indigenous People

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zino krimmel

on 16 December 2012

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Transcript of Indigenous People

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Indigenous People Of Canada Structure General overview
First Nations
Past Future General overview Population of 34 million
3.4% aboriginals
55 different languages
Since 1982 indigenous people officially accepted
Mosaic of cultures Inuit Inuit = “Human”
Survived thousands of years without technical devices
Number got decimate as the European settled down in Canada
Recently the Canadian government accepted the Inuit and helped to create schools Origin Descend from an Asian nation of hunters and gatherers
They arrived over the Bering Strait to America
Entered Canada 3000 B.C.
Last immigration 1000 A.C.
Did not depend on agrarian manufactures
Called “Eskimos” by the Indians Inuit culture Culture is rooted in nature
Inuit treat human beings, the land, animals and plants with equal respect
Try to use resources of the land and sea wisely in order to preserve them for future generations
Family = center of Inuit culture
Language -> Inuktitut First Nations How did the Inuit live? During the heating time -> fixed colonies
In cold phases they changed between several hunting lodges
Lived in igloos Settlements 2000 years ago
Different bands Social organisation Woodlands Plains Plateaus Pacific coasts Mackenzies Prairie Shuswap Lillooet Okanugon Culture Living in peace an harmony with nature
Differences in lifestyles depending on various districts
Nomads with buffalos
Fishing at the coasts
Growing vegetables in country Religion Similar believes (life began on the North American continent)
8 Different themes of genesis
Effect: Various rituals Métis First Métis in Eastern Canada:
Children of European fishermen or traders with
Native women
Red River region -> place where they were really first established
Today over 350.000 Métis in Canada Settlements Culture Métis people‘s life incorporated aspects of French-Canadian and Native cultures
During height of fur trade in 1700s and 1800s, many French-Canadian fur traders married native women
Most of the fur traders were French and Catholic
children (Métis) exposed to both:
Catholic & Native belief
Native people wanted to establish strong relationships with their European trading partners
-> offered their wives to the traders
Native women aided in fur traders survival: were able to translate, sew new clothing, cook food
Fur traders benefited greatly from their knowledge of the land The Métis' fur trade Métis played big role in success of western fur trade
understanding of both societies helped to bridge cultural gaps > better relationship
Métis were skilled voyageurs, buffalo hunters and traders
Two trading firms between Métis and fur traders:
--> North-West Company & Hudson's Bay Company Past: 1492: Discovery of America
Colonial wars:
France and Britain tried to confederate with First Nations
Treaties: land in exchange for certain rights 1876: Indian Act
1874-1970s: Residential schools
150000 children were taken away from families by force Assimilation: Pre-confederation Policies: christianisation
Idea of “productive members”

Post-confederation Policies: government moved away from policy of fostering
“kill the Indian in the child” Reasons: high death rate
physical and sexual abuse
badly equipped teachers
problem children tried to set school on fire Residential schools: addictions to drugs and alcohol
can’t forgive Canadian government Effects: Canadian feature: “everyone is accepted and respected”
Reservations like Nunavut
values change
new projects: Post Secondary Student Support Program Future: references http://tranquilheart.hubpages.com/hub/Canadas-cultural-mosaic
http://www.metisnation.ca/ Present: Indigenous people´s life today: Self- government in reserves
Political program against pollution of aboriginals´ land
Oil pipelines
They mistrust government The Canadian mosaic Definition:
Canada accepts and respects every culture , religion and origin. Multiculturalism Act 1971: prime minister Trudeau made Canada become the first country in the world with an agenda for multiculturalism
Focused on diversity and heterogeneity Cultural mosaic collaboration of different groups which retain own features Point system: No restrictions on number of immigrants
Questions about reasons for immigration
No one is not avoided for ethnicity religion or nationality Thank you
for your
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