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Copy of Copy of 66 Literary Terms AP Lang
Transcript of Copy of Copy of 66 Literary Terms AP Lang
Animal Farm by Geroge Orwell that uses the concept of animals living on a farm as an allegory which represented the communist regime of Stalin.
Romeo & Juliet used allegory to describe Romeo's love for Juliet as a religious and spiritual experience. Example: "Call me love and I'll be new baptized. Alliteration Repetition of sounds, usually the first letter of two or more words. In poetry, alliteration is used to provide flow, beauty, and musicality. Literature: The Raven by Edgar Allen Poe uses alliteration Example: "Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing, Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before..."
Acquainted with the Night by Robert Frost uses alliteration. Example: "I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet / When far away an interrupted cry / Came over houses from another street"
Another poem by Edgar Allen Poe, "The Bells" is rife with alliteration. Example: " to provide flow, beauty, and musicality." Allusion A historical, literary, religious, or mythical direct or indirect reference to a well known place, book, piece of art etc. Literature: Hollow Men by T.S. Elliot referenced several plays, authors, books, and social issues with symbolism. Example: The first epigraph refernces "The Heart of Darkness," a book on Western Imperialism.
In Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare refernces Ethiopia in this passage: "O, she doth teach the torches to burn bright! / It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night / Like a rich jewel in an Ethiop's ear;"
Divine Comedy, a poem by Dante Alighieri references the mythological story of Phaethon and Icarus in this passage: "I doubt if Phaethon feared more - that time / he dropped the sun-reins of his father's chariot / and burned the streak of sky we see today - / or if poor Icarus did - feeling his sides / unfeathering as the wax began to melt, / his father shouting: "wrong, your course is wrong." Ambiguity Words or phrases that have more than one meaning, intentional or unintentional. Literature: Groucho Marx used grammatical ambiguity to add humor to his poems. Example: "Outside of a dog, a book is a man's best friend. Inside of a dog, it's too dark to read."
F. Scott Fitzgerald uses ambiguity to develop the plot and characters of The Great Gatsby. Example: Character Jay Gatsby was morally ambiguous because he threw large parties, and owned a large estate only to watch the house of the girl he loved.
The play Hamlet by Shakespeare uses ambiguity when Hamlet tells Ophelia "Get thee to a nunnery" which could mean go to a convent or a brothel. Analogy A comparison of two different things by associating them with each other's similarities. Literature: The poem "In Spring" by Samuel Johnson compares animals that can blend in with their surrounding to people who are able to appreciate and be inspired by the objects around them.
"Nothing Gold Can Stay", a poem by Robert Frost uses analogy to characterize the terms of the poem to each other. "Nature's first green is gold, / Her hardest hue to hold. / Her early leaf's a flower; / But only so an hour. / Then leaf subsides to leaf. / So Eden sank to grief, / So dawn goes down to day. / Nothing gold can stay." In this analogy gold is green, flower is leaf and Eden is grief.
Night Clouds by Amy Lowell uses the imagery of mares to create a picture that was ana analogy to clouds. "The white mares of the moon rush along the sky / Beating their golden hoofs upon the glass Heavens; / The white mares of the moon are all standing on their hind legs / Pawing at the green porcelain doors of the remote Heaves. / Fly, Mares! / Strain your utmost. / Scatter the milky dust of stars, / Or the tiger sun will leap upon you and destroy you / With one lick of his vermillion tongue. Antecedent A pronoun that refers to a word, or phrase Literature: Shakespeare was known for using "they" as singular antecedents: "There's not a man I meet but doth salute me / As if I were their well-acquainted friend" "Now leaden slumber with life's strength doth fight; /And every one to rest themselves betake, / Save thieves, and cares, and troubled minds, that wake." Antithesis The contrast of ideas, the direct opposite. Literature: "We must learn to live together as brothers or perish together as fools." - MartinLuther King, Jr.
The characters Dumbledore and Voldemort, from Harry Potter, are the exact opposite of eachother, good and evil.
“Hee for God only, shee for God in him” Paradise Lost by John Milton. Aphorism An abrupt/short statement made by an author which articulates a general truth or moral. Like a famous quote or saying. It's sort of up to the audience whether something becomes an aphorism. Literature: "The first rule of Fight Club is--you do not talk about Fight Club." This is a famous quote from a well known and liked movie called Fight Club.
In the Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, character Nick Carraway gives wise advice: "Whenever you feel like criticizing anyone, just remember that all the people in this world haven’t had the advantages you’ve had."
"I think therefore I am" by Rene Descartes Atmosphere/Mood/Tone Mood - the emotion the reader feels, created by setting, dialogue, theme, etc.
Tone - The attitude a writer feels about a subject Literature: Edgar Allen Poe was a master of creating morbid and suspensful atmosphere with tone and wordchoice. Quotes from The Raven;
"Back into the chamber turning, all my soul within me burning, / Soon again I heard a tapping somewhat louder than before. / `Surely,' said I, `surely that is something at my window lattice; / Let me see then, what thereat is, and this mystery explore - / Let my heart be still a moment and this mystery explore; - / 'Tis the wind and nothing more!'"
"Ah, distinctly I remember it was in the bleak December, / And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor. / Eagerly I wished the morrow; - vainly I had sought to borrow / From my books surcease of sorrow - sorrow for the lost Lenore - / For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels named Lenore / Nameless here for evermore."
"Prophet!' said I, `thing of evil! - prophet still, if bird or devil! /By that Heaven that bends above us - by that God we both adore - /Tell this soul with sorrow laden if, within the distant Aidenn, /It shall clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels named Lenore - /Clasp a rare and radiant maiden, whom the angels named Lenore?' / Quoth the raven, `Nevermore.'" Caricature A comical description used to distort and exaggerate distinctive features. Literature: George Orwell's book Animal Farm uses animals as caricatures of notable people of Russian politics. The pig character Snowball is Leon Trotsky.
Charles Dickens describes characters humorously in his book Bleak House: "Mr. Chadband is a large yellow man, with a fat smile, and a general appearance of having a good deal of train oil in his system. Mrs. Chadband is a stern, severe-looking, silent woman. Mr. Chadband moves softly and cumbrously, not unlike a bear who has been taught to walk upright. He is very much embarrassed about the arms, as if they were inconvenient to him, and he wanted to grovel;" Clause A grammatical unit that expresses a complete thought. Literature: "All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others." (George Orwell, Animal Farm)
It does not do to dwell on dreams and forget to live. (J.K. Rowling, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone)
Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate; only love can do that. (Martin Luther King Jr.) Colloquialism Using slang and informal speech in literature to make writing more familiar. Literature: "I didn't want to go back no more. I had stopped cussing, because the widow didn't like it; but now I took to it again because pap hadn't no objections... But by-and-by pap got too handy with his hick'ry, and I could't stand it. I was all over with welts. He got to going away so much, too, and locking me in. Once he locked me in and was gone three days. It was dreadful lonesome." (Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain, 1885)
"The Pool Players. / Seven at the Golden Shovel. / We real cool. We / Left school. We / Lurk late. We / Strike straight. We / Sing sin. We Thin gin. We / Jazz June. We / Die soon." (We Real Cool, Gwendolyn Brooks)
"So it took an eight-year-old child to bring 'em to their senses.... That proves something - that a gang of wild animals can be stopped, simply because they're still human. Hmp, maybe we need a police force of children." (To Kill A Mockingbird, Harper Lee, 1960) Conceit A fancy extension of a metaphor or analogy that demonstartes intellectual cleverness. The metaphor or analogy is usually surprising due to its unusual comparison. Literature: Shakespeare skillfully compares a woman to the beautiful summer's day in Sonnet 18. "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? / Thou art more lovely and more temperate. / Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, / And summer's lease hath all too short a date. / Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, / And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; / And every fair from fair sometime declines, / By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd;..."
Shakespeare does it again in As You Like It; "All the world's a stage, / And all the men and women merely players; / They have their exits and their entrances" Connotation/Semantics The implied, non-literal meaning, often involving ideas, emotions, or attitudes, of a word. The relation of a word to another based on their historical development. Literature: Robert Frost's poem Mending Wall uses connotation to convey the physical and emotional boundaries created by a wall. Example: "And on a day we meet to walk the line / And set the wall between us once again. / We keep the wall between us as we go. / To each the boulders that have fallen to each."
Shakespeare wrote the play Othello by making the character Othello a black man, assuming that the audience would identify with the connotation of black being evil and barbaric, as it was a social norm. Denotation/Semantics The literal, dictionary definition of a word. No emotion, attitude, added ideas etc. Usually interpreted with connotation. The relation of a word to another based on their historical development Literature: Robert Frost's poem Mending Wall uses denotation to convey only the physical boundaries created by a wall. Example: "And on a day we meet to walk the line / And set the wall between us once again. / We keep the wall between us as we go. / To each the boulders that have fallen to each."
William Wordsworth uses denotation and connotation a cold, morbid, and depressing tone in his poem "A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal", about a girls funeral: "A slumber did my spirit seal; / I had no human fears-- / She seemed a thing that could not feel
The touch of earthly years. / No motion has she now, no force; / She neither hears nor sees; / Roll'd round in earth's diurnal course / With rocks, and stones, and trees." Diction The author's wordchoice, formal or informal, ornate or plaine, paired with other figurative language shows the author's style. Literature: T.S. Eliot chose his words in his poem, Burnt Norton, to convey a tone of chaos and unreliability as he describes what words are: " Words strain, / Crack and sometimes break, under the burden, / Under the tension, slip, slide, perish, / Decay with imprecision, will not stay in place, / Will not stay still."
In his speech I Have A Dream, Martin Luther King, chose his words to create a hopeful tone full of imagery and passion to discuss the need for racial equality.
Abraham Lincoln's speech, Gettysburg Address, uses concise diction while invoking concepts of equality and union of the country: "...But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate, we can not consecrate, we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth." Didactic Words or phrases that serve the purpose of teaching moral and ethical principals. Literature: John Winthrop, leader of the Puritan colony in Massachussetts in the 1600's wrote "City upon a Hill", a sermon meant to educate his followers on the religious and societal examples they must set for other New England colonies.
"Sophie's World", a book by Jostein Gaarder, was written to introduce readers to the history of philosophy and philosophical thinking.
Aesop's Fables are a collection of short fables that use animals stories to represent humans and their moral challenges. Euphemism A more socially acceptable, less offensive word or concept for a fenerally unpleasant or disliked word/concept. Literature: Shakespeare uses the phrase "Going to bed" in his play The Taming of the Shrew as a euphemism for having sex. When characters invited or ordered each other to "come to bed," they really meant "come have sex."
Thomas Hardy's poem Afterwards is a poem about death, but the author never once uses the word "death" or "die": "If I pass during some nocturnal blackness, mothy and warm, / When the hedgehog travels furtively over the lawn, / One may say, 'He strove that such innocent creatures should come to no harm, / But he could do little for them; and now he is gone.' "
The U.S. Constitution avoids using the word "slave" in its text. Instead the words "property" & "bound to service" are used to describe slaves. The 3/5 compromise is a good example: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons." Extended Metaphor A really developed metaphor that reoccurs throughout a piece of writing. Literature: T.S. Eliot's poem The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock uses qualities of a cat as an extended metaphor to describe fog: "The yellow fog that rubs its back upon the window-panes, /The yellow smoke that rubs its muzzle on the window-panes / Licked its tongue into the corners of the evening, / Lingered upon the pools that stand in drains, / Let fall upon its back the soot that falls from chimneys, /Slipped by the terrace, made a sudden leap, /And seeing that it was a soft October night, / Curled once about the house, and fell asleep."
In Romeo & Juliet, Shakespeare has Romeo compare Juliet to the sun throughout the play. Example: "It is the east, and Juliet is the sun. / Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon, / Who is already sick and pale with grief, / That thou her maid art far more fair than she: / Be not her maid, since she is envious;"
Emily Dickinson's poem, "Hope is the thing with feathers", uses an extended metaphor to offer hope as a a bird. "Hope is the thing with feathers / That perches in the soul, / And sings the tune--without the words, / And never stops at all, / "And sweetest in the gale is heard; / And sore must be the storm / That could abash the little bird / That kept so many warm." Figurative Language/ Figure of Speech Imaginative and vivid writing that is not meant to carry literal meaning. Uses devices such as apostrophe, simile, metaphor, irony, hyperbole, personification, etc. Literature: Langston Hughes used metaphor and apostrophe to illustrate the racial discrimination African Americans disciminate while instilling a tone of hope at the end of his poem, "I, Too". "I, too, sing America. / I am the darker brother. / They send me to eat in the kitchen / When company comes, / But I laugh, / And eat well, / And grow strong. / Tomorrow, / I'll be at the table / When company comes. / Nobody'll dare / Say to me, / "Eat in the kitchen," / Then. /Besides, / They'll see how beautiful I am / And be ashamed-- / I, too, am America."
In Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, J.K. Rowling uses imagery and antithesis to describe how dementors floated away: "As light as darkness."
In Romeo & Juliet by Shakespeare, Romeo uses metaphor to compare Juliet to the sun (see other slides). Generic Conventions/ Genre Helps define each type of writing; from essay, to poetry, to autobiography. There are several sub-genres. Literature: Novel: A fictional story told in narrative form. Examples are the Harry Potter series by J.K. Rowling, 1984 by George Orwell, & Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald.
Poetry: Rhythmical, abstract composition of writing often using a lot of figurative language to describe beauty or critcize society. Examples are "We Real Cool" by Gwendolyn Brooks, Hollow Men by T.S. Eliot, and "I, Too" by Langston Hughes.
Autobiography: Author writing about their life. Examples are Diary of A Young Girl by Anne Frank, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas, and Persepolis by Marjane Satrapi. Homily A sermon/lecture giving spiritual/moral advice. Literature: In the mid 1600's, John Winthrop, leader of the Massachussetts Bay Puritan colony, gave a sermon on while he and his fellow Puritans emigrated from England. A quote from the sermon tells you that he wants his new colony to be an moral and societal example to all other colonies:"For we must consider that we shall be as a City upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us. Soe that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause him to withdraw his present help from us, we shall be made a story and a byword throughout the world."
Jonathan Edwards, a preacher in the early 1700's, gave a sermon to scare rural colonists into finding their faith (or else go to hell). He called it "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God: "The observation from the words that I would now insist upon is this. -- "There is nothing that keeps wicked men at any one moment out of hell, but the mere pleasure of God." -- By the mere pleasure of God, I mean his sovereign pleasure, his arbitrary will, restrained by no obligation, hindered by no manner of difficulty, any more than if nothing else but God's mere will had in the least degree, or in any respect whatsoever, any hand in the preservation of wicked men one moment. -- The truth of this observation may appear by the following consideration." Hyperbole A figure of speech that is an exaggeration, it produces irony, humor, or seriousness. Literature: In W.H. Auden's poem "As I Walked Out One Evening", Auden used impossibility to describe how deeply he loved someone: "I'll love you, dear, I'll love you / Till China and Africa meet, / And the river jumps over the mountain / And the salmon sing in the street, / I'll love you till the ocean / Is folded and hung up to dry / And the seven stars go squawking / Like geese about the sky."
"I was helpless. I did not know what in the world to do. I was quaking from head to foot, and could have hung my hat on my eyes, they stuck out so far." (Mark Twain, Old Times on the Mississippi)
The story of Paul Bunyan is a tall-tale. Much of the details of the setting and the most characters are exaggerations: "Well now, one winter it was so cold that all the geese flew backward and all the fish moved south and even the snow turned blue. Late at night, it got so frigid that all spoken words froze solid afore they could be heard. People had to wait until sunup to find out what folks were talking about the night before." Literature: Daffodils, a poem by William Wadsworth uses imagery to embody a field of daffodils: "I wandered lonely as a cloud / That floats on high o'er vales and hills, /When all at once I saw a crowd, / A host, of golden daffodils; / Beside the lake, beneath the trees, / Fluttering and dancing in the breeze. / Continuous as the stars that shine / And twinkle on the Milky Way, / They stretch'd in never-ending line / Along the margin of a bay:"
Harry Potter & the Order of the Phoenix by J.K. Rowling: "Harry's heart turned over." Provides imagery to a feeling people have when affected by deep emotion.
Gustatory imagery: "I have eaten / the plums /that were in / the icebox / and which / you were probably / saving / for breakfast / Forgive me / they were delicious / so sweet / and so cold" (William Carlos Williams, "This Is Just to Say") Inference/Infer/ Syllogism Drawing conclusions from the information given in a poem or piece of literature. A deductive form of logic leading to an inevitable conclusion. Literature: Mid-American Tragedy by Denise Levertov is a poem
In Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Hermione informs Harry that a girl couldn't keep her eyes off him. The next line was: "Harry had never before appreciated just how beautiful the village of Hogsmeade was." One can infer that Harry was extremely happy and appreciated life at that moment.
Thomas Hardy's poem Afterwards is a poem about death, but the author never once uses the word "death" or "die", meaning that the reader must infer through the word choice and tone: "If I pass during some nocturnal blackness, mothy and warm, / When the hedgehog travels furtively over the lawn, / One may say, 'He strove that such innocent creatures should come to no harm, / But he could do little for them; and now he is gone.' " Invective The use of emotionally violent or abusive language Literature: "A knave, a rascal, an eater of broken meats; a base, proud, shallow, beggarly, three-suited, hundred-pound, filthy worsted-stocking knave; a lily-livered, action-taking, whoreson, glass-gazing, super-serviceable, finical rogue; one-trunk-inheriting slave; one that wouldst be a bawd in way of good service, and art nothing but the composition of a knave, beggar, coward, pander, and the son and heir to a mongrel bitch: one whom I will beat into clamorous whining if thou deni'st the least syllable of thy addition."(William Shakespeare "King Lear")
"A custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous to the lungs, and in the black, stinking fume thereof, nearest resembling the Stygian smoke of the pit that is bottomless." (King James I, "Counterblast to Tobacco")
In the internal decoration, if not in the external architecture of their residences, the English are supreme. The Italians have but little sentiment beyond marbles and colors. In France, meliora probant, deteriora sequuntur--the people are too much a race of gadabouts to maintain those household proprieties of which, indeed, they have a delicate appreciation, or, at least, the elements of a proper sense. The Chinese and most of the Eastern races have a warm but inappropriate fancy. The Scotch are poor decorists. The Dutch have, perhaps, an indeterminate idea that a curtain is not a cabbage. In Spain they are all curtains--a nation of hangmen. The Russians do not furnish. The Hottentots and Kickapoos are very well in their way. The Yankees alone are preposterous."(Edgar Allan Poe "The Philosophy of Furniture") Irony The difference between what appears to be happening and what is actually happening. Verbal irony: words literally state opposite of the writer's meaning. Situational irony: Events turn out to be the opposite of what is expected. Dramatic irony: Facts or events are unknown to a charatcer, but known by the audience. Literature: (Verbal Irony) In The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne, Dimmsedale confesses to be the "worst of sinners” and pleaded with his congregation to condemn him as they have done Hester. They do and say the exact opposite, praising him for his ability to confess his sins.
(Situational Irony) In the end of theWizard of Oz by Frank Baum, the characters discover that they have the power to achieve their wishes on their own and traveling to meet the wizard helped them learn that.
(Dramatic Irony) In the end of Romeo and Juliet, Romeo discovers Juliet who he believes to be dead and kills himself. Juliet is in fact alive and wakes up to find Romeo actually dead. Litotes Making an affirmative point by denying its opposite. Literature: In a letter to John Addams about the founding fathers ignoring women's rights, Abigail Addams wrote: "I cannot say that I think you are very generous to the ladies; for, whilst you are proclaiming peace and good-will to men, emancipating all nations, you insist upon retaining an absolute power over wives."
"for life's not a paragraph / And death I think is no parenthesis" (E.E. Cummings, "Since Feeling is First") Loose Sentence/ Non-periodic Sentence A sentence in which a main idea (independent clause) comes first and is followed by dependent phrases or clauses. Literature: "Halfway between West Egg and New York City sprawls a desolate plain, a gray valley where New York’s ashes are dumped." (Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald)
"We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom, symbolizing an end as well as a beginning, signifying renewal as well as change..." (JFK Inauguration Speech 1961). Metaphor A figure of speech that compares unlike things or substitutes one thing for another, suggesting similarity. Literature: "All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players, they have their exits and their entrances" (William Shakespeare, As You Like It)
In the poem "Three Presidents", by Robert Bly, uses metaphors to convey his opinion about some of America's most loved presidents while adding political and historical context.
"Two roads diverged in a wood, and I--/ I took the one less traveled by, / And that has made all the difference" (Robert Frost, "The Road Not Taken") Contains a metaphor about the choices in life. Metonymy A figure of speech in which a word is replaced with another word that is closley associated to the orginal. Literature: In the play Julius Cesar written by Shakespeare, the word "people" is substituted with "Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears"
"As he swung toward them holding up the hand / Half in appeal, but half as if to keep / The life from spilling." From "Out, Out" written by Robert Frost, the literal meaning of these lines is that a man or boy is bleeding and in mortal danger. Literature: Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary,Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore,While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.`'Tis some visitor,' I muttered, `tapping at my chamber door -Only this, and nothing more.' (Edgar Allen Poe, The Raven)
The Harry Potter Series is a narrative about fighting evil within a wizarding world, spanning across several years.
"A Hanging" by George Orwell is a short narrative essay about a criminal's execution. "It was in Burma, a sodden morning of the rains. A sickly light, like yellow tinfoil, was slanting over the high walls into the jail yard. We were waiting outside the condemned cells, a row of sheds fronted with double bars, like small animal cages. Each cell measured about ten feet by ten and was quite bare within except for a plank bed and a pot of drinking water. In some of them brown silent men were squatting at the inner bars, with their blankets draped round them. These were the condemned men, due to be hanged within the next week or two." Onomatopoeia When natural sounds are put into words. Bark, hiss, hum, crackle are examples. Literature: And who tolling, tolling, tolling, / In that muffled monotone, / Feel a glory in so rolling / On the human heart a stone..." ("The Bells" by Edgar Allan Poe).
"water plops into pond /splish-splash downhill / warbling magpies in tree / trilling, melodic thrill / whoosh, passing breeze / flags flutter and flap / frog croaks, bird whistles / babbling bubbles from tap" (Lee Emmett, "Running Water")
"Hark, hark! / Bow-wow. / The watch-dogs bark! / Bow-wow. / Hark, hark! I hear / The strain of strutting chanticleer / Cry, 'cock-a-diddle-dow!'" (William Shakespeare's The Tempest) Oxymoron The writer groups terms/ phrases that contradict each other to suggest paradox. Literature: "O brawling love! O loving hate! . . . / O heavy lightness! serious vanity! / Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms! / Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health! / Still-waking sleep, that is not what it is! /This love feel I, that feel no love in this." (William Shakespeare's Romeo & Juliet)
"The bookful blockhead ignorantly read, / With loads of learned lumber in his head, / With his own tongue still edifies his ears, / And always list'ning to himself appears." (Alexander Pope, "An Essay on Criticism") Paradox vf A phrase that seems self-contradictory or without any common sense, yet suggesting some underlying truth or validity. Literature: "All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others" A quote from Animal Farm, by George Orwell, that spoke the inequality within the communist society of Russia.
"The earth that's nature's mother is her tomb; / What is her burying grave, that is her womb;" (Romeo & Juliet by William Shakespeare)
"I must be cruel to be kind". Shakespeare in Hamlet Parallelism The grammatical or rhetorical structuring of a phrase/paragraph that give structural similarity. Literature: "We can do well in this country. We will have difficult times. We've had difficult times in the past, but we -- and we will have difficult times in the future. It is not the end of violence; it is not the end of lawlessness; and it's not the end of disorder." RFK on the death of Martin Luther King.
"I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal. I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice." (MLK, "I Have a Dream) An example of anaphora, repetitive parallelism. Literature: "You are old, Father William," the young man said, "And your hair has turned very white,And yet you incessantly stand on your head- Do you think at your age it is right?" "In my youth," Father William replied to his son, "I feared it might injure the brain;But now that I'm perfectly sure I have none, Why I do it again and again." Written by Lewis Carroll, this excerpt parodied Robert Southey's poem; "The Old Man's Comforts and How He Gained Them"
"Pride and Prejudice and Zombies" is a book by Seth Grahame-Smith which parodies "Pride and Prejudice" by Jane Austen, by adding zombies to the story.
"Snowball's Chance", by John Reed parodies "Animal Farm" by George Orwell by bringing back a main character this time with the message of communism. Pedantic Words or phrases that are really scholarly and "show-offy". Literature: "The pedant is he who finds it impossible to read criticism of himself without immediately reaching for his pen and replying to the effect that the accusation is a gross insult to his person. He is, in effect, a man unable to laugh at himself." from Sigmund Freud's The Ego and the Id.
The article in our AP practice test about historical photography taken out of context was pedantic because its language was extremely scholarly and the topic was extremely specific. Periodic Sentence Puts the main clause at the end of the sentence for emphasis or persuasion. Literature: "Halfway between West Egg and New York City sprawls a desolate plain, a gray valley where New York's ashes are dumped" (F. Scott Fitzgerald in The Great Gatsby)
“Out of the bosom of the Air, / Out of the cloud-folds of her garment shaken, / Over the woodlands brown and bare, / Over the harvest-fields forsaken, / Silent and soft, and slow, / Descends the snow.” (Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Snowflakes)
"To believe your own thought, to believe that what is true for you in your private heart is true for all men, that is genius.” (Ralph Waldo Emerson "Self-Reliance") Personification The writer describes a concept, animal, or inanimate object with human characteristics. Literature: "Next came Fraud, and he had on, / Like Eldon, an ermined gown; / His big tears, for he wept well, / Turned to mill-stones as they fell. / And the little children, who / Round his feet played to and fro, / Thinking every tear a gem, / Had their brains knocked out by them." Percy Bysshe Shelley gives fraud the human traits of tears in "The Mask of Anarchy".
"The earth hath swallowed all my hopes." Shakespeare gives the earth the human ability to swallow in "Romeo and Juliet".
"The wind stood up and gave a shout. / He whistled on his fingers and / Kicked the withered leaves about / And thumped the branches with his hand / And said he'd kill and kill and kill, /And so he will! And so he will!" James Stephens gives the wind human traits of whistling, kicking, shouting, etc. in "The Wind". Point of View The perspective from which the story is told. 1st person tells the story using "I", 3rd person tells the story using "he", "she", "it". Literature: Third Person: "Harry was at the point of telling Ron and Hermione about Filch and the Kwikspell course when the salamander suddenly whizzed into the air, emitting loud sparks and bangs as it whirled wildly round the room. The sight of Percy bellowing himself hoarse at Fred and George, the spectacular display of tangerine stars showering from the salamander's mouth, and its escape into the fire, with accompanying explosions, drove both Filch and the Kwikspell envelope from Harry's mind." ("Harry Potter & the Chamber of Secrets", J.K. Rowling)
Now that I was compelled to think about it, reading was something that just came to me, as learning to fasten the seat of my union suit without looking around, or achieving two bows from a snarl of shoelaces. I could not remember when the lines above Atticus's moving finger separated into words, but I had stared at them all the evenings in my memory, listening to the news of the day, Bills to Be Enacted into Laws, the diaries of Lorenzo Dow- anything Atticus happened to be reading when I crawled into his lap every night. Until I feared I would lose it, I never loved to read. One does not love breathing. Literature: "You can see that there is no easy walk to freedom anywhere, and many of us will have to pass through the valley of the shadow (of death) again and again before we reach the mountain tops of our desires." (Nelson Mandela, "No Easy Walk to Freedom").
"It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen." (1984, George Orwell)
"I could not remember when the lines above Atticus's moving finger separated into words, but I had stared at them all the evenings in my memory, listening to the news of the day, Bills to Be Enacted into Laws, the diaries of Lorenzo Dow- anything Atticus happened to be reading when I crawled into his lap every night. Until I feared I would lose it, I never loved to read. One does not love breathing." (To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee) Repetition The duplication of any element of language, phrase, or grammatical pattern. Literature: "I'm nobody! Who are you? / Are you nobody too? / Then there's a pair of us-don't tell! / They'd banish us you know." Repetition of grammar, tone and diction in "I'm nobody! Who are You?" by Emily Dickinson)
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal." I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state, sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today. Repetition adds special meaning to what MLK and all African Americans dream of, in "I Have a Dream".
"The woods are lovely, dark, and deep, / But I have promises to keep, / And miles to go before I sleep, /And miles to go before I sleep." (Robert Frost, Stopping By Woods on a Snowy Evening) Rhetorical Modes Variety, conventions or purposes of the kinds of writings. Exposition is meant to explain by presenting an idea, evidence, and analysis. Argumentation is to prove a point by convincing the reader with reasoning and discussion. Description is the objective or subjective recreation or invention of a person, place, thing, or event so that the readers can picture it. All five senses are stimulated. Narration is to tell a story or series of events. Literature: "Watching Out For Loaded Words" by Frank Trippet is expository: "Words can be impregnated with feeling by oversimplification. People who oppose all abortions distort the position of those favoring freedom of private choice by calling them proabortion. And many a progressive or idealist has experienced the perplexity of defending himself against one of the most peculiar of all disparaging terms, do-gooder. By usage in special contexts, the most improbable words can be infused with extraneous meaning."
Waziyatawin's book "What Does Justice Look Like? The Struggle for Liberation in Dakota Homeland" is an argument about the need for the recognition of the genocide committed against the Dakota people and the need for reparations due to their unequal economic and social conditions.
Author David Sedaris stayed in a nudist colony for a week, he described the neighborhood in his essay "Naked": "These were mobile homes that had been soundly grounded upon carefully manicured lots, many with built-on decks made of pine and redwood. Some of the trailers had been sided to resemble log cabins, and others were fronted by shingled, A-framed entrance halls. The homeowners' names were displayed on wooden plaques along with slogans such as "Bare with us" or "Smile if you talk naked!" Flowerbeds were marked with wooden cutouts of bare-bottomed pint-size children and silhouettes of shapely, naked women were painted onto the doors of tool sheds and nailed like FOR SALE signs onto the trees. Most everyone seemed to have a golf cart parked in the driveway, and these, too, were personalized with bumper stickers and hand-painted slogans."
The Harry Potter Series is a narrative series that tells a story of Harry Potter and his friends who attend a wizarding school and face great peril each year while fighting the evil wizard Lord Voldemort. Rhetoric The ethos, the principle of art that govern the effective and eloquent piece of writing.Authors can give their characters ethos. Literature: In Animal Farm by George Orwell, character Old Major, a large boar, gives a moving speech about an animal revolution bringing freedom and equality to all animals: "And remember, comrades, your resolution must never falter. No argument must lead you astray. Never listen when they tell you that Man and the animals have a common interest, that the prosperity of the one is the prosperity of the others. It is all lies. Man serves the interests of no creature except himself. And among us animals let there be perfect unity, perfect comradeship in the struggle. All men are enemies. All animals are comrades." "And when this happens, when we allow freedom to ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, 'Free at last! free at last! thank God Almighty, we are free at last!'" An extremely moving end to MLK's speech made to provide hope and convince others to join his cause. Sarcasm The use of sassy/bitter language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone/something. Literature: “Thou shalt believe in Milton, Dryden, Pope; / Thou shalt not set up Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey, / Because the first is crazed beyond all hope, / The second drunk, the third so quaint and mouthy;” (Don Juan: Canto the First by Lord Byron)
"Where has the summer of 1572 gone? Brocade and sonnet / marathons were the rage. We used to dress up in the flags / of rival baronies and conquer one another in cold rooms of stone. / Out on the dance floor we were all doing the Struggle" (Nostalgia by Billy Collins) Satire Aimed at disgusting human habits, or social institutions through ridicule in order to spur reform. It is a style. Literature: Gulliver's travels is a parody of human nature and politics of the 1700's: "Whoever performs his part with most agility, and holds out the longest in leaping and creeping, is rewarded with the blue-coloured silk; the red is given to the next, and the green to the third, which they all wear girt twice around the middle; and you see few great persons about this court who are not adorned with one of these girdles." This suggests that honors aren't given for genuine worth, but for being pleasing to the rulers.
Mark Twain mocked slavery and how people who owned slaves lived within a paradox in "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn".
The book Animal Farm by George Orwell commented on the inevitable unequal divide of power no matter what type of political structure, specifically communism. Style The authors choices in blending diction, syntax and figurative language compared to other authors. Literature: Edgar Allen Poe, author of "The Raven", had a style that was Gothic, morbid, and satirical, He tried to be the opposite of transcendentalism. His diction, syntax, and figurative language were made to entertain wide audiences.
Margaret Atwood, author of "Oryx & Crake" has a witty, exact, and vivid style that always comments on the politics and society while weaving in identity quests. Subject Complement A word/sentence that follows a linking verb and complements/completes by renaming it or describing it. Literature: "Imagination is the one weapon in the war against reality." (Jules de Gaultier)
The lake was a tranquil pool. (Renaming it, predicate nominative)
The lake is tranquil. (Describing it, predicate adjective) Subordinate Clause Has a subject and verb but depends on a main clause to complete its meaning. Easily recognized by words: although, because, unless, if, even though, since, as soon as, while, who, where, how, & that. Literature: While Bailey slept on the sofa in front of the television, Samson, the family dog, gnawed on the leg of the coffee table.
Tanya did poorly on her history exam because her best friend Giselle insisted on gossiping during their study session the night before. Symbol/Symbolism An object, character, action or scene that represents something else (abstract). Natural, conventional and literary symbols. Literature: The Great Gatsby was a symbol of the disintegration of the American dream as prosperity and materialism thrived, while social and moral values decayed. Good qualities in the main character, Gatsby, is what led to his demise.
In Romeo & Juliet, the symbol of poison symbolizes how natural things can be put to both good and evil uses but human society tends to poison good things and make them fatal. Literature: "Friends, Romans, countrymen: lend me your ears." "Julius Caesar" referring to his people, the ears, asking them to listen. Written by William Shakespeare.
"His eye met hers as she sat there paler and whiter than anyone in the vast ocean of anxious faces about her." The face represents the whole person; a part used to refer to the whole, from "The Lady or the Tiger" By Frank R. Stockton. Literature: "I am hearing the shape of the rain / Take the shape of the tent and believe it . . .." (James Dickey, opening lines of "The Mountain Tent")
"I hear the bouncing hills / Grow larked and greener at berry brown / Fall and the dew larks sing / Taller this thunderclap spring, and how / More spanned with angles ride / The mansouled fiery islands! Oh, / Holier then their eyes, / And my shining men no more alone / As I sail out to die." (Dylan Thomas, final verse of "Poem on His Birthday") Literature: "l(a / le /af / fa /ll /s) /one / l /iness" (E.E. Cummings)
Robert Browning's poem "Porphyria's Lover" uses fragmented syntax to maintain rhyme: "The rain set early in to-night, / The sullen wind was soon awake, / It tore the elm-tops down for spite, /And did its worst to vex the lake: / I listen'd with heart fit to break." Literature: A major theme in "To Kill A Mockingbird" by Harper Lee is the existence of social inequality and hierarchy that defines society in America, especially the South, in the mid 1900's.
In "1984" by George Orwell is filled with themes about the dangers of totalitarianism which allowed for governments to constantly control and monitor their citizens. Thesis The sentence/group of sentences that express the main purpose/argument of a writing. Literature: "My thesis is simple: in the next century mankind must harness the nuclear genie if our energy needs are to be met and our security preserved." (John B. Ritch, "Nuclear Green," Prospect Magazine, March 1999)
"I think people are disturbed by the discovery that no longer is a small town autonomous--it is a creature of the state and of the Federal Government. We have accepted money for our schools, our libraries, our hospitals, our winter roads. Now we face the inevitable consequence: the benefactor wants to call the turns." (E.B. White, "Letter from the East")
"It is possible to stop most drug addiction in the United States within a very short time. Simply make all drugs available and sell them at cost." (Gore Vidal, "Drugs") Literature: This piece of writing transitions through its ideas with repetition: ""The way I write is who I am, or have become, yet this is a case in which I wish I had instead of words and their rhythms a cutting room, equipped with an Avid, a digital editing system on which I could touch a key and collapse the sequence of time, show you simultaneously all the frames of memory that come to me now, let you pick the takes, the marginally different expressions, the variant readings of the same lines. This is a case in which I need more than words to find the meaning. This is a case in which I need whatever it is I think or believe to be penetrable, if only for myself." (Joan Didion, The Year of Magical Thinking, 2006) Literature: "The grave's a fine and private place, / But none, I think, do there embrace."(Andrew Marvell, "To His Coy Mistress")
"I am just going outside and may be some time."
(Captain Lawrence Oates, Antarctic explorer, before walking out into a blizzard to face certain death, 1912)
"I have to have this operation. It isn't very serious. I have this tiny little tumor on the brain." (Holden Caulfield in The Catcher In The Rye, by J. D. Salinger) Wit Amusing language meant to suggest the intellectual abilities of the author. Literature: "Better a witty fool than a foolish wit." (William Shakespeare)
"I do not approve of anything that tampers with natural ignorance. Ignorance is a delicate exotic fruit, touch it and the bloom is gone." (The Importance of Being Earnest, Oscar Wilde)