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Action Research

maam this is the final maam, check maam to see if there are some errors, and let me know.

Jovy Gumatay

on 28 October 2013

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Transcript of Action Research

1) Practical and directly relevant to an actual situation in the working world. The subjects are the classroom students, the staff, or others with whom you are primarily involved.

-Philippine setting
Setting and context

To develop new skills or new approaches and to solve problems with direct application to the classroom or working setting.

• Example:

An in-service training program to help train counselors to work more effectively with minority group children; to solve the problem of apathy in a required high school "orientation" class; to test a fresh approach to interest more students in taking vocational courses.

2) Provides an orderly framework
for problem-solving and new developments, empirical in the sense that it relies on actual observation and behavioral data and does not fall back on subjective "studies" or opinions of people based on their past experience.
3) Flexible and adaptive, allowing changes during the trial period and sacrificing control in favor of responsiveness and on-the-spot experimentation and innovation.
4) Its objective is situational, its sample is restricted. Hence, its findings, while useful within the practical dimensions of the situation, do not directly contribute to the general body of educational knowledge.
-English subject (1st year)
Brief history on Philippine educational system
Education in the Philippines has undergone several stages of development
Education Act of 1982
RA 7722 and RA 7796 in 1994 creating the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA)
2001 Republic Act 9155- Governance of Basic Education Act
Free public elementary and high school education
Role of the Department of Education

2. The ACTING stage
5) It is not a linear process, cyclical in nature, that is to say, whereas action research has a clear beginning, it does not have a clearly defined endpoint.

6) Teacher-researchers design and implement a project, collect and analyze data in order to monitor and evaluate the project’s effectiveness, and then
make revisions and improvements to the project for future implementation. In all likelihood,
the project would then be implemented again—perhaps with next semester or next year.

7) go through subsequent cycles of implementation, evaluation, and revision, spiraling
from one semester or year to the next

8) “observing-doing-observing-adjusting” and then doing it again.

1. The PLANNING stage

Step 1: Identifying and Limiting the Topic
Step 2: Gathering Information
Step 3: Reviewing the Related Literature
Step 4: Developing a Research Plan
These are planning activities done prior to the implementation of the project
Step 5: Implementing the Plan and Collecting Data
Step 6: Analyzing the Data
The action researcher implements the plan and then collects and analyzes the data.

the learning program in the curriculum focuses on content–based instruction (CBI) which underscores the use of cognitive academic language learning approach (CALLA) which takes into consideration the various contexts in which language is used in the classroom and other academic settings
uses the problem-based, task-based, and competency-based learning (PTCBL) approaches in which students collaboratively solve problems and reflect on their experiences
theoretical bases of the 2010 SEC include the theory of language, theory of learning and theory of language learning
3. The DEVELOPING stage
Step 7: Developing an Action Plan
This is the step where the revisions, changes, or improvements arise and future actions (known as an“action plan”) are developed.
4) The REFLECTIVE stage
Step 8: Sharing and Communicating the Results
Step 9: Reflecting on the Process
The action researcher summarizes the results of the study, creates a strategy for sharing the results, and reflects on the entire process.
Step 1: Identifying and Limiting the Topic:
decide exactly what to study
anything about which you are curious
goal is a desire to make things better, improve some specific practice, or correct something that is not working as well as it should
Step 2: Gathering Information
Mills (2011) refers to as reconnaissance(preliminary gathering) or taking time to reflect on your own beliefs and to gain a better understanding(self-reflection, description, and explanation)
simple as talking with other teachers, counselors, or administrators in your school
skim teacher’s manuals or other types of curricular guides
Step 3: Reviewing the Related Literature
professional books, research journals, complete websites or individual web pages,teacher resource manuals, school or district documents
provides an opportunity for the
action research to connect existing theory and research to actual classroom practice.

Step 4: Developing a Research Plan
research methodology
to state one or more research questions and possibly to develop from those questions specific hypotheses .
it is the question the action researcher seeks to answer through conducting the study.
Step 5: Implementing the Plan and Collecting Data
First,teachers can observe participants involved in the educational process.
Second, interviews may also be used to collect data from students or other individuals.
Finally, involves the examination and analysis of existing documents or records.
use of polyangulation-the process of relating or integrating two or more sources of data in order to establish their quality and accuracy. For example, by comparing one form of data to the other.
Step 6: Analyzing the Data
“as you collect your data, analyze them by looking for themes, categories, or patterns that emerge
Step 7: Developing an Action Plan
it is the “action” part of action research
As the action plan is implemented, its effectiveness must continually be monitored, evaluated, and revised, thus perpetuating the cyclical nature of action research.

Step 8: Sharing and Communicating the Results
sharing of results with others in the educational community at large
the most appreciative audience for presentations of action research results is often your own colleagues
journals,conference,conventions,faculty meetings,in-service sessions.

Sample Scenario:
Step 9: Reflecting on the Process
critical examination of one’s own practice
must be done at the end of a particular action cycle
-examine during the process of teaching
-revise during instruction
-engage in reflective practice throughout the entire
In addition: Two types of reflective thinking
1) reflection-in-action.-ability to "think on one's feet" when faced with surprises and challenges in our daily lives in school.
2)reflection-on-action.-look back upon their work and consider what practices were successful and needs improvement.

Our example begins with the department chair of a high school social studies department who, for some time, has been disappointed in the performance of students in the school’s history course. The course has always been taught in a traditional manner—with the content coverage beginning prior to the Philippine Revolution and ending with events more recent. The department chair, who teaches multiple sections of the course along with another teacher, believes that there may be some merit in examining a “backward” approach to teaching history (i.e., beginning with current events and proceeding back through time in order to end at the Philippine Revolution). The chair asks the other history teacher for assistance with this potential action research project, and she agrees.

Step 1: Identifying and Limiting the Topic

The two teachers meet on a couple of occasions over the summer in order to identify the specific
topic they hope to address through the examination and trial of this alternative instructional
approach. They determine that they believe that their students struggle most in making connections
between seemingly unrelated historical events. The department chair argues that perhaps
this backward approach (i.e., beginning with more recent historical events with which their
students will be more familiar) will have a positive impact on how well they are able to make
these types of connections. The teachers decide to focus their attention on any differences that
the two instructional approaches have on students’ abilities to make these connections

Step 2: Gathering Information

The teachers decide to talk with the other social studies teachers, as well as teachers in other
subject areas, in their building. They want to know what other teachers think about their
assumption that students struggle with making connections between historical events,
which occurred perhaps decades apart. They ask the others for their initial perceptions
about the backward approach to teaching their content. Additionally, the two teachers spend
time, independently, over the course of a few days to actually consider why they believe that
this is the case for the struggles their students seem to experience. In other words, they carefully
consider any “evidence” that may have led them to feel this way. They also strongly
consider other possible solutions to this dilemma. At their next meeting together, they share
what they had reflected on and decide that the backward approach continues to be worthy
of investigating.

Step 3: Reviewing the Related Literature

The teachers then decide to collect more formal information—that based on research, in
addition to what they had already obtained anecdotally from other teachers of history—
about the effectiveness of backward approaches to teaching historical, chronological
events; how other history teachers may have implemented this type of instruction; and any
problems they may have encountered. They decide to split the tasks, with the department
chair identifying and reviewing published research studies on the topic and the other
teacher contacting history teachers through their professional organizations.

Step 5: Implementing the Plan and Collecting Data

Throughout the school year, the two history teachers design performance-based assessments, which examine the extent to which students were able to connect historical events. In addition, students will take a Philippine history achievement test, a portion of which focuses on critical thinking skills as they apply to historical events.

Step 4: Developing a Research Plan

Following the review of published literature and discussions with teachers from other
schools and districts that have implemented this type of instruction, the teachers found
enough evidence to support the focus of their proposed study (i.e., the backward approach
to instruction is effective), although they also found some contradictory evidence (i.e., this
approach is less or at least no more effective). The teachers decide on the following
researchable question: Is there a difference in instructional effectiveness between a backward
approach and a forward approach to teaching Philippine history? The teachers stated the following predicted
hypothesis: Students who are exposed to the backward approach will experience higher academic
achievement, as evidenced by their abilities to make connections between historical
events, than those exposed to the more traditional forward approach. Since their hypothesis implies a comparison study, the teachers decide to randomly split the eight sections of Philippine history for the coming school year. Each teacher will teach four sections of Philippine history—for each teacher, two sections will be taught using the forward approach and two sections will incorporate the backward approach. Achievement data, as well as other teacher-developed assessment data, will be collected from all students
enrolled in the Philippine history course for this academic year.

Step 6: Analyzing the Data

Immediately following the end of the school year, data analysis is undertaken. Test scores
resulting from the administration of the standardized achievement tests are statistically
compared for the two groups (i.e., the backward group versus the forward group). It is determined
that the test scores of the students who were taught using the backward instructional
approach are significantly higher than those of the students taught in the more traditional
manner. In other words, the original research hypothesis has been supported.
In addition, scores resulting from the various administrations of classroom-based performance
assessments support the results of the standardized achievement tests. Again, the
research hypothesis has been supported.

Step 7: Developing an Action Plan

With their findings in hand, the teachers decide to approach their principal and district
curriculum coordinator about temporarily revising the Philippine history curriculum in
order to capitalize on the apparent effectiveness of the backward instructional approach.
They agree that it will be imperative to continue to study the effectiveness of this approach
in subsequent academic years. Similar findings in the coming years would provide a much
stronger case for permanently changing the approach to teaching Philippine history

Step 8: Sharing and Communicating the Results

The principal and curriculum coordinator are quite impressed with the results of this
action research study. They suggest to the department chair that the two teachers make
a presentation to the school board and to the entire school faculty at a regularly scheduled
meeting at the beginning of the next school year. The two teachers develop and
make an effective presentation at the subsequent month’s board meeting. A teacher
attending the board meeting later suggests that this study might make an interesting
contribution at an annual statewide conference on instructional innovations and best
practices held each summer.

The cyclical and iterative action research process comprises four stages: planning, acting,
developing, and reflecting.
1)The planning stage consists of the following four steps:
Identifying and limiting the topic
Gathering information
Reviewing the related literature
Developing a research plan
2)The acting stage consists of the following two steps:
Implementing the plan and collecting data
Analyzing the data
3)The developing stage consists of the following step:
Developing an action plan
4) The reflecting stage consists of the following steps:
Sharing and communicating the results
Reflecting on the process

Sources of Problems:
1) Instructional Materials
Appropriateness of textbook and other printed materials with respect to gender and ethnicity
The extent to which teachers find the materials useful and to which they support the curriculum
or the perceptions that students have of those materials.
2) Instructional Methods
The effect of a given teaching method on student learning
The impact that different teacher personality styles can have on student learning or motivation to learn
or methods of providing effective feedback to students on their academic performance.
3) Classroom Environment
Topics in this category include the various aspects of the physical and psychosocial environments in classrooms and school buildings and their impact on student learning.
4) Classroom Management
Level of satisfaction that both teachers and students have with the methods of managing student behavior
The degree to which the methods of managing behavior allow students to learn without unnecessary distraction
or how limiting those methods are with the respect to the ability of teachers to teach as they would like.
5) The relation of human growth patterns to education
Ways to incorporate individual students' interests and learning preferences
Teaching strategies that support self-regulated learning of those that support individual rates of learning.
6) Grading and Evaluation
Effects of grades and other evaluative decisions have on student motivation, stress, achievement, and attitudes.
The effective methods of incorporating authentic assessment and other non-traditional means of assessing students.
7) Conferencing
Ways in which parents and teachers value individual conferences
Strategies for improving the effectiveness of parent-teaching conferences.
1. Which of the nine steps in the action research process do you believe would be most difficult to carry out? Explain your answer.

2. Considering the process of action research as presented in the chapter, do you think it would be more feasible to conduct action research individually or in small groups? Develop a list of advantages and a list of disadvantages for doing it either way.

3. Discuss what you see as possible benefits of communicating the results of action research studies
with various educational audiences.

4. Suppose that students in your school are not achieving at the desired level in the (area of your choice)
Using the four-stage procedure for action research as presented in this chapter, briefly
describe how you might systematically examine this problem.

5. Using the same scenario presented in Number 4 above, outline a specific action research study
you might conduct conforming to the nine-step process as presented in the chapter.

Sustainability issues
A question on appropriateness- Teachers must decide responsibly.
A curriculum should be developmentally appropriate (Jipson 1991)
It can take considerable time, effort and skill from the teacher which means that teachers should be capable of using the design
Readiness of teachers
Readiness of teachers is crucial in curriculum implementation (Kam, Greenberg & Walls 2003).
Mentoring and support
Mentoring in the classroom is the most valuable component in curriculum implementation (Peers, Diezmann & Watters 2003)
Calls for assessment literacy
Sudden changes — implementation of K-12
Ahmad, J 2009, Teaching Of Biological Sciences, Prentice-Hall Of India Pvt. Limited.
Curriculum Guide 2010, viewed April 15 2012, <http://www.bse.ph/index.php/english.html>.
Drake, SM & Burns, RC 2004, Meeting Standards Through Integrated Curriculum, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Jipson, J 1991, 'Developmentally Appropriate Practice: Culture, Curriculum, Connections', Early Education & Development, vol. 2, no. 2, 1991/04/01, pp. 120-136.

Kam, C-M, Greenberg, MT & Walls, CT 2003, 'Examining the Role of Implementation Quality in School-Based Prevention Using the PATHS Curriculum', Prevention Science, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 55-63.
Living Curriculum, accessed April20, 2012, <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y2XKf_.UA3Ug&feature=fvst >.
Peers, CE, Diezmann, CM & Watters, JJ 2003, 'Supports and Concerns for Teacher Professional Growth During the Implementation of a Science Curriculum Innovation', Research in Science Education, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 89-110.
Action Research:
"is a reflexive process by which educators systematically study their problems in order to guide, correct and evaluate their decisions and actions regarding the improvement of teaching and learning in their individual professional context."
- Sarah Ultan Segal

Step 9: Reflecting on the Process

Over the summer, the two teachers meet in order to debrief and decide on any adjustments
to the process that might be beneficial for next year. They consider several questions,
including: How well did the process work? Are we sure that the data we collected
were the most appropriate in order to answer our research question? Were there additional
types of data that could or should have been included in the data collection? Their
answers to these questions will help guide next year’s implementation of the backward
approach to teaching Philippine history.
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