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RFA Manifest Destiny
Transcript of RFA Manifest Destiny
American Progress Color Lithograph
by George A. Crofutt and John Gast
“The American claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and …self-government has entrusted to us”,
John L. O’Sullivan
NY Morning News December 27th 1845
Causes of the Mexican American War
Fear of Spanish, French, English, and Mexican power
Desire to spread Democracy and the American way of life.
Desire to spread the institution of slavery
Belief that people could become more wealthy (Gold rush, natural resources.)
Land speculators bought huge tracts of land and sold it for a profit
Escape from religious persecution (Mormons)
Belief that all people should own plot of land to keep the country free
People wanted to find new ways of life
US Territorial Expansion
Mr. Manifest Destiny
Added more territory to the US (by any means) than any other President
Election of 1844
• Presidential candidate James Polk believed strongly in Manifest Destiny, and he favored annexing Oregon over Texas.
“All of Oregon or None”
“Fifty-Four Forty or Fight”
Lowerd the tariff. (Walker Tariff)
Resolve the Oregon boundary dispute.
(Treaty of Washington 1846) 49th Parallel
Restore the independent treasury.
Led US into Mexican War
• The U.S. declared war on Mexico in 1846, shortly after annexing Texas
post War of 1812 nationalism
need for raw materials
Discovery and Destruction
the "Dark Horse" candidate
1. American ship burned by Canadian
2. Canada and US dispute Maine boundary
3. British ships often tried to supress American slave smuggling
4. Settled minor boundary disputes in Maine and the Great Lakes.
5. Brought US and Britain closer in stopping the slave trade
Mexico ignored Grievances by US citizens over losses (property and personal) from the Mexican Revolution
John Slidell sent to negotiate
land but was ignored.
The Accidental President
Didn't follow Whig agenda
Didnt win nomination
Ran anyway (split the vote)
Settled Webster Ashburton treaty
Offered statehood to Texas
Mexico refused to sell Texas to the U.S.
Mexico gave land grants to Americans
Americans brought their "slave society" to Mexico
Mexico did not want slaves in Texas
Americans ignored Mexico's laws
Population shifted to more Americans
The "Father of Texas"
Settled in Austin in 1822
Responsible for all infrastructure and immigration.
Leader of Texas Independence movement
Defeated General Santa Anna at San Jacinto
Asked A. Jackson and MVB for Texas to become a state
February 24th - March 6th 1836
187 Texan/Americans were killed
"Remember the Alamo"
Davey Crockett was killed
John C. Fremont won attacks by land and sea in CA.
Zachary Taylor defeats large forces in Mexico
Windfield Scott forces Mexico to negotiate
Santa Anna Defeated at Mexico City
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848
• Mexico recognized the Texas-Mexico border as the Rio Grande.
• Mexico ceded the Mexican Cession to the United States.
• Today, the Mexican Cession are the states of CA, NV, UT, and parts of AZ, NM, CO, and WY
• The United States paid Mexico $15 million.
Gadsden Purchase 1854
The United States bought southern NM and AZ for $10 million
The Bear Flag Republic
a revolt against Mexico proclaimed by California settlers on June 14, 1846, in Sonoma in the then-Mexican province of California. Declared during the Mexican–American War, the "republic" was a popular revolt; the participants never formed a government, and the "republic" was never recognized by any nation. The revolt lasted 26 days, at which time the U.S. Army took control of the area.
Clayton Bulwer Treaty 1850
It bound both parties not to "obtain or maintain" any exclusive control of the proposed canal, or unequal advantage in its use. It guaranteed the neutralization of the canal. It declared that the parties agreed "to extend their protection by treaty stipulation to any other practicable communications, whether by canal or railway, across the isthmus which connects North and South America."
Polk offered to purchase Cuba from Spain for 100 Million
1852 Franklin Pierce tried to negotiate a sale
Anti-slavery advocated found out.
Tippacanoe and Tyler too!
a simple frontier Indian fighter, living in a log cabin and drinking cider, in sharp contrast to an aristocratic champagne-sipping Van Buren.
William Walker (was a US lawyer, journalist and adventurer, who organized several private military expeditions into Latin America, with the intention of establishing English-speaking colonies under his personal control, an enterprise then known as "filibustering." Walker became president of the Republic of Nicaragua in 1856 and ruled until 1857, when he was defeated by a coalition of Central American armies, principally Costa Rica's army. He was executed by the government of Honduras in 1860.
The Republic of Lower California
This statement had not been authorized by the Franklin Pierce administration and was immediately repudiated. Reaction, both at home and abroad, was extremely negative. Marcy later repudiated the report and Soulé resigned. Buchanan, on the other hand, reaped later political benefits in the form of Southern support for his presidential candidacy in 1856.
Whether is was the complication of slavery, language, or some other factor, it was clear that the powerful idea of Manifest Destiny was primarily directed west rather than south.
Unlike the Democratic Party, which advocated an aggressive position on expansion in the Western Hemisphere, regardless of the risk of international conflict, the Whig Party maintained a consistent attitude of compromise and peace. One example of this attitude was the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, signed by the United States and Britain in April, 1850.
Zachary Taylor’s secretary of state, John M. Clayton, met with a British representative, Sir Henry Bulwer, to calm a potentially troublesome issue in Central America. Both powers had studied the feasibility of constructing a canal to link the Atlantic and Pacific oceans through the narrow isthmus in Central America. Initially the most promising site appeared to be in Nicaragua. Neither party was prepared in 1850 to undertake the massive project, but wanted to ensure that one country would not act in the absence of the other.
US and GB agreed to
Not to seek exclusive control of the canal or territory on either side of such a canal
Not to fortify any position in the canal area
Not to establish colonies in Central America
Texas independence fight
Battle of San Jacinto