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A is for Anubis
Transcript of A is for Anubis
The Ancient Egyptians believed that the ka was a person's double, their life force, and was separated at death from a person's body. The reason they mumifyed bodies was to make sure the ka had a home. The ka needed food, and in order to feed it, people brought things like bread and beer to the tomb. The Ancient Egyptians also believed that the dead body had to look as similar to the living body as possible so the ka and the ba, the ka's spiritual partner, could recognize the body. The living really wanted the dead to survive in the afterlife, so they would leave servants, clothes, weapons, jewelry, and anything else that might be useful in the afterlife.
L is for Lotus
The lotus was a sacred flower in Ancient Egypt. There were three different species, two native, white and blue, and one brought from Persia, pink.The sacred blue lotus was the most used and the one shown in hieroglyphs.
At night, lotuses close and sink underwater, and in the morning, they float up and bloom again. This made the lotus a natural symbol for the sun and creation. Also, The Book of the Dead had spells for "transforming oneself into a lotus" which would make the promise of rising again come true.
M is for Memphis
G is for Giza
Giza was part of the ancient wonders of the world, which was made up of three pyramids. The designs of these pyramids were similar to pyramids built before. They were the sturdiest and largest pyramids ever built in Egypt. The three pyramids were built for Khufu, Khufu's son and Pharaoh Menkaure. Giza was located in the upper section of Egypt.
I is for Ieb
The Ieb is the egyptian symbol for the heart. It was shaped like a vase with handles. The Ancient Egyptians believed that the heart, not the brain was the center of one's life force and had the mind and soul of oneself in it. They also believed that the heart controlled the movement of a person and would leave a person's body when they died. Since the Ancient Egyptians had these beliefs, they left the heart inside a person's body when they were mummified and placed an ieb scarab over the heart. The heart was also used in the Weighing of the Heart Ceremony to judge a person's soul.
A is for Anubis
Anubis is the god of embalming and the dead. His head is black and looks like a jackal. He is the protector of the dead and their tombs. Later, during the Middle Kingdom Osiris replaced him as the god of the dead. His wife was Anput.
H is for Hieroglyphs
Hieroglyphs are symbols the Egyptians used to write with. There were seven hundred different hieroglyphs. Mainly scribes used hieroglyphs because it was very hard to learn. Egyptians invented hieroglyphs and wrote them on tablets and paper they made called papyrus. Hieroglyphs dated back to about 3000 B.C.
J is for Jewelry
The Ancient Egyptians had many different types of jewelry such as amulets, necklaces, pendants, bracelets, head jewelry, and anklets. They used materials like gold, silver, and many gemstones to create their jewelry. This jewelry was made for decorative reasons and would contain symbols thought to bring protection and success to the person wearing it, dead or alive. Amulets were one type of jewelry made to protect the person wearing it from evil, and would show images of gods, hieroglyphs, and animals. A common amulet is the scarab beetle. Wealthy women would wear jewelry on their chest, neck, and shoulders which were bare. Pharaohs wore jewelry as well, such as royal insignia.
Memphis is the capital of Ancient Egypt. It is located to the south of the Nile River. The famous pyramids of Egypt are located here. The original name of the city of Memphis was the White Walls. This may have referred to the kings palace that was built of white washed brick. Memphis was founded around 3100 BC by King Menes who united Upper and Lower Egypt.
B is for Book of the Dead
The "Book of the Dead" was used from the beginning of the New Kingdom, to 50 BCE. This book consists of magic spells intended to assist a dead persons journey through Duat or the underworld. This book was placed on the coffin of the one who died. The book of the dead was written on papyrus, (a plant used to make paper, glue etc...). Egyptians used the book of the dead for clues, teaching them passwords, and revealing routes that would answer questions for the dead that would navigate around hazards.
C is for Canopic Jar
Mummy Organs were stored in these jars. These jars were decorated on the top with a special animal. The jars were made of stone or wood. There were four special gods that protected the canopic jars. Hapy guarded the lungs, Imsety guarded the liver, and Duamutef guarded the stomach, and Qebehsenuef guarded the intestines.
D is for Deities
Deities are beings which could either be a god or a goddess. Deities were worshiped a lot in Egypt. Egyptians believed there were deities for almost anything. They are shown with a human body and heads of animals. Deities are thought to be immortal and their personalities are superior to humans.
E is for Egypt
Egypt was a large country in Africa. Egypt had many cities and was ruled by a pharaoh. It was one of the most powerful countries in ancient times. Egypt had seas, lakes, rivers and deserts. Egypt had a lot of pyramids, and Giza was one of the main pyramids that Egypt was known for.
F is for Flail
N is for Nile River
The Nile River is the largest river in the world. The Nile was really important for the Ancient Egyptians because they got their food and water from it. The Nile River was also their transportation, so they built boats to use to get across the river. The Nile river is believed to be the only river that flows South to North. About 40 million people,which is half of Ancient Egypt's population, lived in the Nile River Delta region.
O is for Osiris
Osiris was an important figure in Egyptian history. He was the god of the dead. Osiris was killed by his brother Set, but was put back together by his sister Isis. His symbol is a wrapped mummy. Sometimes Osiris was called '' king of living'' because the Ancient Egyptians thought that the blessed dead were ''the living ones''.
P is for Pyramid
The most famous pyramid in Ancient Egyptian times was Giza. Some Egyptians built pyramids without slaves and used farmers. Farmers would build pyramids because they got paid in food and clothes. Egyptian pyramids were used for tombs. Since the Ancient Egyptians put a lot of riches in the pyramids for the dead, the pyramids were often robbed despite the many booby traps in them.
Ancient Egypt ABC book
By: Annicka Nichols and Natalie Dinin
The flail is an Egyptian tool used in farming, for beating grain. It's usually seen with the crook, a shepherd's tool. They both were made of copper and alloy with blue glass and gold set on them. They symbolized a pharaoh's power and responsibility, and were a part of a pharaoh's royal items. The crook and flail would be carried in ceremonies and other important events that showed a pharaoh's power.
Q is for Queen Cleopatra
R is for Ra
Ra was the god of the sun to the Ancient Egyptians. He was the commander of the earth, the underworld, and the sky. The Egyptians built temples that were open to the sun light to honor Ra. Ra looked like a man with a hawk head and he had a headdress with a sun disc. Ancient Egyptians believed that the sky goddess Nut swallowed him every night, and then he was born again every morning.
Queen Cleopatra had a full name Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator. She died August 12th, 30 BC. She died at the age of 38-39 because she let a snake poison her in Alexandria, Egypt. Cleopatra learned Egyptian which was a big deal then, because the common language at that time was Greek. She was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty ( dynasty is a family that maintains its position for a long time).
S is for Scarabs
Scarabs were popular amulets in ancient Egypt. They were famous for there habit of rolling balls of dung on the ground to their burrow. This action added to the belief that the scarab god Khepera pushed the sun along the sky in the same way. In many artifacts the scarab is shown pushing the sun along the sky also. Scarab amulets were also often placed over the heart of a mummified person during the New Kingdom.
T is for Temple
Ancient Egyptians believed that temples were homes for the gods and goddesses. Each temple was dedicated to a god or goddess, which he/she was worshiped at. Large temples were made of stone so they would last forever. The walls of temples were covered with scenes which were carved and painted. The scenes showed pharaohs fighting in battles, and performing rituals with the gods and goddesses.
U is for Ushabti
Ushabtis were small human figures placed in tombs whom would do the labor of the dead in the afterlife. Since royalty and nobles wouldn't want to work in the afterlife, they had ushabtis in their tomb. Their names would vary, and they would be called other things like shabti and shawabti depending on the time period. The earliest versions like shabti, were shown working on their task with tiny tools. Later versions like ushabti, had a magic formula inscribed on them which would make them start working. Ushabtis were made out of many different materials such as wax, clay, wood, stone, and sometimes, glass and bronze.
V is for Valley of the Kings
W is for Waterclock
X is for Expedition to Punt
Y is for Yaaru
Z is for Zodiac
The Valley of the Kings was a desert valley where many pharaoh's tombs were located, on the opposite side of the Nile as Thebes. It was built by Thutmosis I, but his successor, Amenhotep I was known as the founder of the valley. There were two main branches of the valley, the East Valley where most of the tombs were, and the West Valley where Amenhotep III and Ay's tombs were. The last one to build a tomb there was Ramses XI. However, even though the tombs were hidden well, all of the tombs must have been robbed by tomb robbers, and even Tutankhamun's tomb was found almost intact by Howard Carter.
The Waterclock was used in Ancient Egypt to tell time and measure speeches in the courtroom. It had a float with a rack that turned a wheel. Time was measured by the flow of the water and had hours marked on the sides of the bowl that would get the water. Waterclocks worked in another way too, where they measured time according to the amount of water, which would turn a wheel to show the hour of a day. The waterclock was also used to keep track or how long a person spoke in the courtroom, because the other way would be turning a device over and over again.
In Ancient Egyptian myths, the Yaaru is the field of the afterlife, and is located in the land of the dead, (Osiris's kingdom). The Yaaru is represented as a big field of wheat and is a beautiful place where the dead can enjoy their favorite things to do. It is in the east, where the sun rises, but is sometimes thought to be a group of islands. The Yaaru's opposite is the dark land of the dead (Duat). The Yaaru was also where the Weighing of the Heart ceremony took place.
Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt had a trading expedition go to the African kingdom of Punt in a fleet of five ships. It isn't known when the ships came back, but from the walls of Dayr-al Bahri it is known that the ships came back with the expensive products from Punt, like its valuable woods, lovely smelling resin and frankincense, along with ebony and ivory as well. The expedition also brought back other animals, fish, and plants drawn in murals. The homecoming itself was also drawn in murals on a temple. In order to even get to Punt, the Ancient Egyptians must have known the navigation facts about the Red Sea. It isn't known if Hatshepsut sent any more expeditions to Punt, but it is known that later pharaohs reached the south of Africa and beyond.
Ancient Egyptians knew about the 12 signs of the Zodiac, but they didn't invent them. Although, Ancient Egyptians made a different zodiac system, and assigned different signs than the ones used today. Signs in the Egyptian zodiac were gods and goddesses. The Ancient Egyptians used zodiacs to decorate tombs, coffin lids, and temples. Zodiac signs also helped the Ancient Egyptians with astronomy.