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APAH: Indigenous American Art

AP Art History
by

Kristin Palomares

on 18 January 2016

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Transcript of APAH: Indigenous American Art

Indigenous Americas
AP Art History
Kwakiutl of the
Canadian Northwest Coast

“kwah-kee-oo-tull”
northern end of Vancouver Island and the adjacent mainland of British Columbia
Bakoostime
summer
Tsetseka
winter
gather food
ceremonies on the mainland
Seasonal Society
few “New World” cultures to place value on the acquisition of property


wealth = social status = family worth
Value Base
animals = humans & humans = animals
creation story where only difference was skin covering
#1
#2
cedar
cedar
Bend Wood
Sew Wood
Paint Wood
steamed until pliable and then used hot rocks to bend four corners
bored holes in edges and used cedar rope or wood pegs to sew/lace
dark red, black, white, and green paint used to enhance basic form of mask
Abstract Design
Kwakwaka’wakw Transformation Mask
used in performance when there was a change in character
#2
used at potlatches where the person hosting gives away his or her possessions
#1
wearer transformed into spirits represented on masks
#2
painted decorations represented family crests; outer = father, inner=mother
#1
ovoid
design element used in Northwest art that looks as if it contains little or no recognizable/realistic forms from the physical world
lines
painted against a dark background with visual accents at the eyes, nose, and mouth
curves
rigid to show nostrils, eyes, lips
Bandolier Bag
#163
1850 C.E.
http://www.crayola.com/crafts/lenape-indian-bandolier-bag-craft/
What do these items have in common?
Common Qualities
solid beading background
truncated triangular flaps
ribbons at the ends of the flap and strap tabs
halfway change in the bead work patterns on shoulder straps
dissimilar decoration of pouch and strap

Function
= none
worn by men on festive occasions
survival of many suggests popularity
few have recorded histories
Context
European Trade
European Wars
Lenape Migration
Prairie Style
200+ years
wool/cotton fabrics replaced deerskin garments
beads & silk ribbons = new materials
colonial folk art = new ideas/technique
territorial conflicts between the French, British, & Americans allowed tribes to maintain independence
Before
War of 1812
ended Amerindian independence
After
art became a means of maintaining identity
pioneered by Delaware women forced west onto the prairies as a result of the Indian Removal Act of 1830
more elaborate versions of earlier hunter bags
influenced by the shape of colonial military shoulder bags
bead work inspired by American folk art designs; printed cotton & ceramics
Kansas/Missouri Border
Oklahoma
Delaware River Watershed
#1
#2
#3
pouch composed of two rectangles stitched on top of the other
decorated with glass bead, spot-stitch embroidery
trimmed with silk ribbon
multi-colored, abstract, geometric designs are outlined with tiny white beads (seed beads)
strap design is broader and bolder than pouch; may not be original
Formal Analysis
Extra Credit
Create your own Lenape Bandolier Bag
Write a short response, typed, that addresses content, formal qualities, context, & function
Due by the end of the unit
Painted Elk Hide
#165
1890-1900 C.E.
Artist
Cotsiogo
co-SEE-ko
"mountain flower" in Shoshone language
Cadzi Cody
name given by Euro-Americans in 1900
prolific artist during his lifetime
Wind River Reservation
Born in Wyoming & lived until hist death at 46
Tradition
Painting
History
pictorial record keeping
found on shirts, robes, tipis
carried on through appointed historian who painted a symbol each year to represent the most important event that occurred
centuries old pictographs appear on ledges/cliffs & animal hides called winter counts
gender based
women painted geometric designs on rawhide containers & robes
men painted personal biographical scenes on clothing, shields, and tipi covers & liners
Great Serpent Mound
#156
1070 C.E.
Mesa Verde Cliff Dwellings
#154
450-1300 C.E.
Black-On-Black Ceramic Vessel
#166
Mid-20th C.E.
dodecahedron assignment? brochure?
extra credit vs. in-class?
one per building?
http://www.greatmathsteachingideas.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Making-3D-Shapes.pdf
cliff Palace
Unique
depicts various aspects of Plains life
Bison Hunt
Sun Dance
Grass Dance
Drumming
Headdress
Technique
removed hide from animal
#1
women prepared it for use
#2
staked to ground as evidence by holes around edges
Scraped hair & bleached in the sun
tanned, or softened, by rubbing/soaking it with fat/brains
rolled for sizing then stretched by to original size/shape
Painted with natural pigments
#3
iron ore
lake algae
clay
bison gallstones
porous bone = brush
*sample used commercial paint*
stencils sometimes used
#4
*at least in sample*
identical bison
pairs of dancers
two forms of horses
Taboo Review
cotsiogo

what are the three most important events in your life?
What image/symbol/color would represent each?
What role did imperialism play in shaping indigenous art?
Think It Through
Warm-Up
Review
Review
What role did imperialism play in indigenous art?
How does art art reflect gender norms?
moved from Bandelier to Rio Grande River Valley
Puebloans
Early 1900s
1500s
Pottery in decline
Railroads
initially brought manufactured metal/ceramic wares
tourism & increasing curio market favored exotic items that were easy to transport
first
then
pottery became the single most important source of $ for Pueblos
Ultimately
Gender
women made & skills passed generationally
Leader In Revival
Maria Martinez
Dr. Edgar Lee Hewett
director of Museum of New Mexico
excavated Frijoles Canyon in Bandelier National Monument
asked Maria to reproduce ancestral Pueblo pottery he found

World Fair
St. Louis
New York
Chicago
iron rich clay used as the slip
reduced oxygen to create highly polished matte on black color scheme
Maria made the pots while her husband decorated/fired them
Signature
encouraged by non-Pueblo people
initially signed Poh-ve-ha (Water Lily)
moved to Marie then Maria and finaly Maria Poveka
collaborators added names

Sgraffito
post-firing carvings & etchings
Innovations
Blackware
Pottery Production
San Ildenfonso Pueblo
already an established potter when she married
Review
olla
rounded pot
design
based on natural phenomenon
two-bands
abstract but suggest bird in flight with rain clouds
Art Deco
popular between World Wars
emphasized geometric forms & bold colors
Fits Contemporary Preferences
How did the prospective audience change Pueblo pottery?
think it Through
3 min
balcony house
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3gyV-Nb5L0OTEd0UWYyNm1VTEE/view?usp=sharing
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3gyV-Nb5L0OcUhuRnVKYnJZT3c/view?usp=sharing
walk & talk
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3gyV-Nb5L0OR05UNEpBWjkzTnc/view?usp=sharing
scenes of plains Indian Life
Why do we wear masks?
Warm-Up
Yaxchilan
#155
725 CE
Templo Mayor
#157
1375-1520 CE
Ruler's Feather Headdress
#158
1428-1520 CE
Aztec
Mayan
How was the site discovered?
Back-2-Back Challenge
Coyolxauhqui Stone
Found by electrical workers in Mexico City in the 1970s
body parts in a pinwheel shape
feathers on hair
balls of down on hair
elaborate earrings
fancy sandals & bracelets
serpent belt
skull
naked central figure
sagging breasts
stretched/lined belly
monster faces at joints of limbs
One point for each of the following...
Bells-on-her-face
Mexica (Aztec) goddess, the sister of Mexica’s patron god, Huitzilopochtli, who killed her after she attempted to kill their mother
mother became pregnant when a piece of down entered her skirt
balls of down on hair
Coyolxauhqui was herself a mother
sagging breasts
stretched/lined belly
mother was defended & Coyolxauhqui died on Snake Mountain
skull
serpent belt
Coyolxauhqui = humiliated
naked central figure
Coyolcauhqui was thrown down the mountain by her brother and her body broke apart
monster faces at joints of limbs
body parts in a pinwheel shape
How does the piece relate to the story?
Templo Mayor
Tenochtitlan
former Mexica capital & modern day Mexico city
quadrants
divided intro four main areas with temple at center
reflected Mexica cosmos; location was the "naval of the universe"
90 feet
covered in stucco
Tlaloc
diety of H20 & Rain
agricultural fertility
Base
croaking heralded rainy season
top
holding vessel = offering
Chacmool
older than Mexica
type of sculpture
(may symbolize
Mountain of Sustenance)
Huitzilopochtli
deity of Mexica, warfare, fire, & the Sun
Panquetzaliztli
banner Raising Ritual
celebrated brother’s triumph over sister
offered gifts to deity, danced, & ate tamales
war captives were painted blue & killed on the sacrificial stone and then bodies rolled down the staircase
Top
banner figures decorated stairs
Center
sacrificial stone
Base
serpents
Coyolxauhqui Stone located
building phases
7; correspond with different rulers (Tlatoani) taking office of enviro issues
atl-tlachinolli
burnt water
way to acquire power & wealth
connoted warfare
Huitzilopochtli
Tlaloc
Olmec Mask
Offerings
water
warfare/sacrifice
suggests awareness of historical & cultural traditions in Mesoamerica
made of jadeite
made over 1000 years prior to the Mexica
burial suggests people found it precious & historically significant
collected from distant places as tribute
Piedra del Sol
Aztec Calendar Stone
Spanish Conquest
city destroyed in 1521
buried or reused
buried beneath Mexico City’s main plaza (Zocalo)
rediscovered in 1790
mounted on one of the towers of the cathedral
basalt sculpture
sun deity Tonatiuh or earth god Tlaltecuhtli
once painted, like all Aztec sculpture
cuauhxicalli
Eagle Vessel
sacrificial stone
famous ancient Mexican sculpture; reproduced throughout history
NOT a calendar; displays 20 or 360 days
Today
What do the findings tell us?
review
Taboo Review
Mexico City
Huitzilopochtli
Templo Mayor
Tenochtitlan
quadrants
building phases
Tlalcoc
frogs
atl-tlachinolli
Chacmool
serpents
Panquetzalixtli
Spanish Conquest
Eagle Vessel
Aztec Calendar Stone
olmec stone
water
warfare/sacrifice
zocalo
2 min
Featherworks
amantecas
craftspeople who made highly valued featherworks
Original Location
Movement
many shipped to Europe after conquest
collected by clergy & nobility
Kunstkammer
collections or chambers of curiosities
"Moorish"
label for anything non-European
contextually = Mexican
replica exhibited in the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City
Audience
popular due to folklore
Moctezuma II
Cortes
gift vs theft
Charles I of Spain
headress shifted to crown in Austria
Rediscovered
curator found in a castle
folded & damaged by moths
at one point catalogued as an apron
Function
worn on special occasions
Resplendent Quetzal
450 tail feathers
mounted on net of vegetable fibers & wooden sticks
imported by merchants
extracted as tribute
decorated in gold ornaments
now gilded bronze after restoration efforts
originally had a golden bird's beak attached to front
Taboo Review
amantecas
Resplendent Quetzal
gilded
kunstkammer
Moorish
National Museum of Anthropology
Mexico City
Moctezuma II
Cortes
Charles 1/V
feather crown
Vienna
apron
Connect - Extend - Challenge
Connect-Extend-Challenge
Write a headline that captures the most important aspect for this piece
Headlines
Generate
Sort
Connect
Elaborate
a list of ideas/thoughts that come to mind when you think about this particular topic/issue
your ideas according to how central or tangential they are, i.e. vortex
your ideas by drawing connecting lines between common items. Explain how they are connected.
on any of the ideas by adding new ideas that expand, extend, or add to your initial understanding
Chiapas, Mexico
above Usamacinta River
a horizontal support across the top of a door or window
an upright stone slab or pillar
Stele/Stelae
carved with hieroglyphs and pictures describing the history of the city
Lintel 25, Structure 23
Lady Xook, wife of the ruler Shield Jaguar II, in a hallucinatory state after a ritual bloodletting
She envisions a Teotihuacan serpent (maybe ancestral spirit)
text in mirror image (reverse); unknown reasons
Part of a building constructed after a 150 year absence of new construction
Possibly part of building program meant to reinforce Shield Jaguar II's divine right
above doorways of stone structures, stelae, and stairways
stone lintels
Propaganda?
***create own with history of pico rivera***
Adams County, Ohio
Earthwork
located on a ridge
app. 1,330 feet long
averages 4 feet high
a large artificial bank of soil, especially one made as a defense
Subject
serpent swallowing an egg?
a lunar eclipse?
mythical horned serpent?
Function
unknown
burial mounds located nearby
Westward Expansion
gentrification
3 min
destroyed many more of these animal shaped mounds
3-2-1
ideas
questions
analogy
national park CRF reader?
(Eastern Woodlands)
Ancient Central Andes
refers to present day southern Ecuador, Peru, western Bolivia, & northern Chile b/w 8800 BCE & 1534 CE
Andean Mntns.
narrow desert coast
Amazon rainforest
cultures had distinct individual styles but emphasized these ecosystems:
emphasized group over individual
Exotic Materials
feather-work, textiles, & green stones
metalwork, bone, obsidian, & stone
ceramics & wood
Ancient America: Big Ideas
City of Cusco
1440 CE
#159
Inca Empire
Cusco capital & religious center
Central highlands, Peru
Cusco
puma (shape of a sacred animal) layout of city with temple complex as its head
Qorikancha
main temple
honored Inti (sun god)
constructed using ashlar masonry
gold decoration
Requirements
after fasting, worshipers entered barefooted with loads on their backs
Saqsa Waman (Sacsayhuman)
part of complex built after 1438
Over 20k people worked on it over a 50 year period
Later used as a fortress against Spanish invaders
imperial taxes paid by giving precious materials or by engaging in manual labor
Spanish Conquest
complex taken apart & stones used to build colonial buildings
main temple incorporated into church/convent of Santo Domingo
Warm Up: Emperor's New Grove
4 min
Think-it-through
The concept of victors repurposing architecture was common globally troughout history. List as many repurposed products/buildings as possible in time provided.
sandstone
Silver & Gold Maize Cobs
What is your favorite "mexican" food? Why?
Warm-Up
My fave...
History of Elote SS?
http://chicago.us.mensa.org/features/cheapeats/200506.html
1400-1553
#160
sheet metal/repousse
gold/silver alloys
1/3
only one of three of these small sculptures still in existence
Qorikancha
found in main temple of Cusco
Pizarro
reported a garden planted with golden maize
used 3 times a year for rituals related to the sowing & harvesting of maize
metallurgists
miniature llamas, corn, flowers, and people all made of gold and silver
natural forms on small scale (Incan)
City of Machu Picchu
1450-1540 CE
Central Highlands
Peru
#161
Granite
UNESCO
3 min
Basics
architectural complex located 7k feet above sea level
contains remnants of baths, houses, palaces, temples, agricultural areas
12k people lived/worked here
possible function = remote retreat for royal family/servants
Intihuatana Stone
in observatory; lines up with celestial events
March 21/September 21 the sun is directly overhead, casting no shadow
brainstorm as many questions as possible with time provided
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/lost-inca-empire.html
HW?
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3gyV-Nb5L0OaVJDdVZiazN4UTA/view?usp=sharing
Socratic Seminar
Significance
important imperial food
used to make chicha (maize beer) that was consumed at political feasts
like hand on bible
Socratic Seminar
All-T'oqapu Tunic
#162
1450-1540
Inkan
camelid fiber & cotton
https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/u/0/asset-viewer/all-t-oqapu-tunic/3gGwkGsEqlgG7w?hl=en
zoom-image
Virtual Tour
Inkan
Ancient MesoAmerica: Big Ideas
refers to Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, & Western Honduras b/w 1500 BCE & 1521 CE
created monumental earthworks/temples
repeated enlarging & renovating sacred sites
post and lintel architecture with brightly painted relief sculptures
created plazas
elaborate burial rituals
Olmecs, Mayans, Aztecs
distinct styles but all...
used similar calendars
built stepped pyramids
oriented architecture in relation to sacred mountains & celestial bodies
valued green colored materials
Native North American
Labels
Created by Europeans
Broad Stylistic Categories
Arctic
Northwest Coast
Southwest
Plains
Eastern Woodlands
geometric patterns
inclusion of visionary figures or animals
expresses armony with nature
respect shown to elders
belief in shamanism
particpation in large community rituals
Longstanding Values & Artistic Practices
Audience
made for tribal leaders, community members, or family
some objects restricted for religious or political reasons
Round #1
6 min
Is it saving or ruining LA?
http://www.laweekly.com/news/is-gentrification-ruining-los-angeles-or-saving-it-pick-a-side-5342416
Round #2
Philosophical Chairs
Full transcript