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Lipids

An exploration of the organic molecule - Lipids.
by

Jean Battinieri

on 8 December 2014

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Transcript of Lipids

Organic Molecules
Proteins
Lipids
made of C, H, O
1:2:1
made of at least C, H, O
make up 50% of the organic material in the body
molecule = two or more atoms joined together chemically
organic = mlc made of carbon & hydrogen
inorganic = mlc that does not include both C & H
there are 4 main classes
Other important atoms include: O, N, P, & S
function
QUICK energy
other uses:
structural
transport energy
store energy
Monosaccharides
"one monomer of sugar"
have at least a carbon backbone
most are rings of 5-6 C
ex) deoxyribose
ex) glucose
it is a building block for other carbohydrates
can be added to other organic compounds to form more complex molecules
Nucleic Acids
Many different functions
Special Properties of Carbon
makes 4 covalent bonds
it is extremely stable
it can make long chains or rings
forms a backbone to which many other atoms can connect
monomers link together to form polymers
Carbohydrates
Disaccharides
if there are 2 monosacharides bonded to eachother, it is called a disacharide
Polysaccharides
"complex carbs"
100s to 1000s of monomers linked
Ex) glycogen
Ex) starch
Ex) cellulose
sugar storage in animals
stored mainly in the liver and muscles
sugar storage in plants
aka fiber
tough, insoluable plant cell walls
H-bonds with nearby cellulose strands
humans cannot break it down
helps move waste through the colon
lots of C&H few O
nonpolar end does not mix/dissolve well in polar water
Uses:
Main function:
STORES energy
structural
signaling molecules
Fatty Acids
Saturated Fatty Acid
A 16-18 carbon chain with a carboxyl group at the end
4 subclasses
all carbons single covalently bonded
all carbons are saturated with hydrogen
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
contain one or more double bonds between the carbons
Animal fats contain more saturated fatty acids
solid at room temperature
Vegetable fats contain more unsaturated fatty acids
double bonds lead to kinks which allow flow and thus is a liquid at room temperature
glycerol and fatty acids are the monomers that combine to make triglycerides and phospholipids
Triglycerides
aka fat
Consist of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
Phospholipids
Our bodies' most abundant and richest source of energy
Consist of:
1 gycerol
2 fatty acids (hydrophobic)
hydrophillic phosphate group
main component of cell membranes
Steroids
very different structure; 4 carbon rings
made of 20 different kinds of amino acids
Each amino acid has:
An amino group
A carboxyl group
A R group-unique side chain
amino acids are linked by peptide bonds
polypeptide = >3 amino acid chain
glycoprotein = a protein with a monosaccharide attached
play many critical roles in almost every physiological process
4 levels of organization
Primary Structure
Determined by:
the number of amino acids
the order of the amino acids
With 20 different amino acids and various lengths and orders of amino acids, an almost unlimited variety exists.
Secondary Structure
Shape determined by:
hydrogen bonds
ionic bonds
van der Waals forces
covalent (disulfide) bonds
Usually results in coiled and sheeted regions
order of amino acids = shape = function
Tertiary Bonding
Folding determined by:
covalent (disulfide) bonds
The coil(s) and sheets fold amongst each other.
Quaternary Structure
Occurs when certain proteins are composed of more than one polypeptide.
Attach to each other through:
hydrogen bonds
ionic bonds
van der Waals forces
covalent (disulfide) bonds
Examples/Uses:
Structural as in bones, hair, and muscles
Ex) keratin, collagen
Regulate cell processes
Ex) hormones like insulin
Immune response
Ex) antibodies like IgE
Denaturation of a protein occurs when bonds are broken by a change in pH or temperature = change in shape = change in function
1
2
Enzymes increase the rate of reactions
Ex) amylase, catalase
Transport of things around and in/out of cells
Ex) hemoglobin, Na+/K+ channels
3
4
nucleotides
Goals:
Part 1: Intro to Organic Molecules
Vocab:
Inorganic
Organic
Monomer
Polymer
Carbohydrate
Lipid
Protein
Nucleic Acid
Classify a substance as being inorganic or organic.
Identify the monomers and polymers for each of the 4 major organic molecules.
Identify the main atoms that make up each of the 4 major organic molecules.
Goals:
Part 2: Carbohydrates
Vocab:
Carbohydrate
Monosaccharide
Disaccharide
Polysaccharide
Describe the role of carbohydrates in cells.
Identify examples of different kinds of carbohydrates
Goals:
Part 3: Lipids
Vocab:
Lipid
Fatty acid
Glycerol
Saturated
Unsaturated
Triglyceride
Phospholipid
Steroid
Compare and contrast the characteristics of saturated and unsaturated fats.
Draw and label a fatty acid.
list the functions, monomer, elements of a lipid
Describe the way a lipid is made
Compare lipids to other macromolecules
Organic vs. Inorganic
Ex) NaCl, H2O, CO2, etc
Ex)
carbohydrates
lipids
proteins
nucleic acids
monomers=
monomers=
&
Glycerol
monomer=
monomer=
Made of at least C, H, O, & N
Made of C, H, O, N, & P
Goals:
Part 4: Proteins
Vocab:
Protein
Enzyme
Amino Acid
Peptide Bond
Polypeptide
R-group
Denature/Denaturation
Primary Structure
Secondary Structure
Tertiary Structure
Quaternary Structure
1) Identify examples of different kinds of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
2) ***Describe the 4 levels of protein folding/structure. ***
3) ***Identify the types of bonds in each level of protein structure. ***
4) Describe how a protein’s shape affects its function.
5) ***Describe the effects of temperature and pH on protein/enzyme structure and function.***
Big and....
... small
deoxyribose
Main function: catalizes/controls chemical reactions
Function: Directs the production of proteins
Ex: DNA and RNA
has 3 parts
5 carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)
phosphate group
nitrogen base
4 nitrogen bases
Adenine
Guanine
Cytosine
Thymine
are Purines
Two rings in the nitrogen base structure
are Pyrimidines
One ring in the nitrogen base structure
make long strands by connecting the phosphate group of one with a 5 carbon sugar of another
Fatty Acid drawing and labels
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