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Motor Learning

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by

Arielle Crist

on 12 September 2014

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Transcript of Motor Learning

Theoretical Background
Major Concepts
Generalized
motor program
Intrinsic vs extrinsic
feedback
Knowledge
of results vs knowledge of performance
Practice
schedule







Stages
:
Cognitive
- gather information
Associative
- put actions together
Autonomous
- automatic performance
Strengths
Client-centered experience

Emphasized retention and transfer of learning

Based on natural progression
Extrinsic feedback may not be available or may be bias

Limited client population

Real life setting may not be attainable in clinic
Weaknesses
Motor Learning
Amber, Arielle, & Samantha
Key Contributors
Sir Charles Sherrington- Physiologist

Nikolai Bernstein- Physiologist

Wilhelm Wundt- Father of Psychology

Edward Thorndike- Law of Effect

Franklin Henry- Father of Motor Skills Research


Closed Loop Theory
proposed that motor learning is strengthened by repetitive practice of the same movement, with guidance if needed

Schmidt's Schema Theory
proposed an open loop process of motor learning. Generalized motor programs were created from past movement, recalled from memory and used to influence motor performance of new tasks.

Dynamic Systems Theory
views motor behavior as a dynamic interaction between client factors, the context and the occupations that must occur for the client’s roles to be performed


Case Study
Alan

10 year old boy with TBI
Accident occurred 4 years ago
Left sided spastic hemiplegia
Uses a powered wheelchair
Received a school-based OT/PT evaluation
Seldom plays with classmates/friends
Goal is to bowl with friends
Skill is releasing bowling ball independently


References
Brown, Jeff. (2014). Retrieved September 11, 2014, from: http://
www.businessweek.com/articles/2014-02-05/lego-movie-toy-brands-minifigs-entrusted-to-warner-bros-filmmakers

Coleman, M., Shibib, N., & Graham, A. (2013). Started from the bottom [Recorded by
Drake]. On
Nothing was the same
[digital recording]. Cash Money Records (2012).

Colourbox. (2014). Retrieved September 11, 2014, from: http://sciencenordic.com/ intense-
workout-boosts-motor-learning

Edwards, R.V., & Lee, A.M. (1985). The relationship of cognitive style and
instructional strategy to learning and transfer of motor skills. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 56, 286-290. DOI: 10.1080/02701367.1985.10605376

Edwards, W. (2011). Motor learning and control: From theory to practice.
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth

Gillen, G. (2014). Motor function and occupational performance. In B. A.
Boyt Schell, G. Gillen & M. E. Scaffa (Eds.), Willard & Spackman’s occupational therapy (12th ed., 750-778). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Huber, J. J. (2013). Applying educational psychology in coaching athletes.
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Pascal. (2014). Retrieved September 11, 2014, from: http://www.
mindflash.com/blog/2012/04/how-workplace-strength-training-produces-top-performers/

Phipps, S.C. & Roberts, P. (2013). Motor learning. In H.M. Pendleton & W.
Schultz-Krohn (Eds.), Occupational therapy: Practice skills for physical dysfunction (7th ed., 831-834). St. Louis: Elsevier Mosby.

Poole, J.L. (1991). Application of motor learning principles in occupational
therapy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45, 532-537.http://web.a.ebscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer sid=27488853-7cda- 4f6b-9bca-12fea54ad51 9%40 sessionmgr4004&vid=0&hid=4109

Occupational Therapy Department-Faculty. (2014, June 19). Retrieved
August 28, 2014, from http://www.downstate.edu/CHRP/ot/faculty/sabari.html

Zwicker, J.G., & Harris, S.R. (2009). A reflection of motor learning theory
in pediatric occupational therapy practice. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76 (1), 29-37. http://www.ergoterapiforbarn.no/pdf/NR09%20-%20Zwikker.pdf
Modern Contributors
Jack Adams- Closed Loop Theory

Richard A. Schmidt- Schema Theory

Joyce Shapiro Sabari- LOTR

Janet L. Poole- LOTR

Motor Learning Development
Applying Motor Learning to Occupational therapy
OT should know the stages of motor learning and what stage the client is in

OT should also explain stages of motor learning to client
Cognitive
OT assists client in understanding motor goal using verbal instruction, modeling, and manual guidance.

Associative
Practice:

Random practice leads to more long term recall.
Variable practice leads to more generalizability
Entire sequence
Simulate real life scenario
Feedback:

Intrinsic feedback helps establish skill
Extrinsic feedback helps finesse
Autonomous
By this stage, client can do skill with little attention.
Instruction can shift to varying the contexts of where motor skill will take place.
Therapist
Full transcript