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Play therapy - Virginia Axline
Transcript of Play therapy - Virginia Axline
Play Therapy General Philosophy What Is It? We will give the child a choice and let them guide us. We will accept a child's need to "play out" their emotions. Incorporating What We've Learned 8 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF NONDIRECTIVE PLAY THERAPY Impact on CYC Profession Trends in Play Therapy in the Profession of CYC http://www.wasatchfamilytherapy.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/shutterstock_50844475.jpg Group Therapy http://www.drmikemd.com/new/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/all-in-the-family-counselling_paintedhands1.jpg http://cached.imagescaler.hbpl.co.uk/resize/scaleToFit/406/271/?sURL=http://offlinehbpl.hbpl.co.uk/news/OWN/DDF312CE-AE66-ADBD-535879D85EE47D14.gif http://www.play-therapy.com/images_parents/parents_bsplayroom.jpg Video Outlining Play Therapy http:// www. youtube.com/watch?v=fmKxvTtS Woc http://www. youtube.com/watch ?v=qRfUrjNnxoc http://images.hotfrog.com.au/companies/Discover-Me-Occupational-Therapy-Counselling-for-Adults-Children-3-12-years/images-pr/Child-Parent-and-Adult-Mental-Health-Counselling-Play-Therapy-for-children-aged-3-10-years-with-78638_image.jpg http://www.drmistiebarnes.com/common/images/Fotolia_2669386_X.jpg http://www.claremontpractice.co.za/images/play-therapy-claremont-cape-town.jpg By: Tasia, Thea, Jessie and Ailish The therapist must develop a warm, friendly relationship with the child, in which good rapport is established as soon as possible. The therapist accepts the child exactly as he/she is. The therapist establishes a feeling of permissiveness in the relationship so that the child feels free to express his feelings completely. The therapist is alert to recognize the feelings the child is expressing and reflects those feelings back to him in such a manner that he gains insight into his behavior. The therapist maintains a deep respect for the child's ability to resolve his own problems if given an opportunity to do so. The responsibility to make choices and to institute changes is the child's. The therapist does not attempt to direct the child's action or conversation in any manner. The child leads the way; the therapist follows. The therapist does not attempt to hurry the therapy along. It is a gradual process and is recognized as such by the therapist. The therapist establishes only those limitations that are necessary to anchor the therapy to the world of reality and to make the child aware of his responsibility in the relationship. Play Therapy In Hospitals Hospitalization can be a frightening and stressful experience for young children because the child is in a strange environment where all sorts of invasive procedures are carried out. Using hospital equipment, syringes, stethoscopes, masks etc. with a combination of dolls, puppets, paint etc., the therapist can acquaint children with medical procedures through directed play and reduce the child's anxiety. She studied at Ohio state and Columbia university . Later, she became a member of the faculty at Ohio state university. Schooling She is the founder of play therapy. Axline's primary works was with children with severe emotional disturbances. In 1964, she published a book called Dibs.
She is also the author of a text book called Play therapy: The Inner Dynamics of Childhood. Family Play Therapy Child centered play therapy can be described as a dynamic interpersonal relationship between the helper and the client. The helper trained in play therapy provides an open atmosphere while enabling a safe trusting relationship with the client, where the client can comfortably express themselves by means of play. Child centered play therapy was influenced by the philosophy of Carl Rogers, but formally introduced by Virginia Axline. This non-directive therapeutic approach provides a caring relationship between the client and the helper while providing a free informal atmosphere that the child can explore the self and receive full acceptance for who he or she is. An effective type of play therapy involves the child identifying their emotions by picking or drawing what type of emotion they are experiencing. This allows a comfortable way of allowing a child to express how they feel and come to terms with their emotions without intrusive questions Various examples of play therapy activities Group play therapy can be a therapeutic process that promotes communication between children that may be suffering from similar past experiences. Group Play Therapy During practice, a play therapy counselor may initiate questions that encourage feelings, and allow the child to take responsibility but also setting boundaries. A few examples would be: “Your frustrated with her.”, if a child wonders what to draw the counselor would say “You can choose how you would like it to look” also if the child is breaking the play materials the counselor would say “Toys are not for breaking”. Program example: Child Life Play therapy has significant results on children who suffer from learning disabilities by helping improve motor functioning overcome learning difficulties. A study conducted provided evidence that play therapy significantly increased self-confidence in children, while it improved learning skills and increased participation.
They concluded that increased academic performance may be due to the childs ability to be intrinsically motivated as play therapy helps children develop the ability to self-direct, becoming more self-aware, and accepting responsibility. This allows children to relate to one another and to become aware that they are not isolated in their past experiences. Play Therapy at Work http://www. youtube.com/watch ?v=wiX9MEYmSLM Evidence of Play Therapy In a residential care setting, resilience and the ability to creatively think was shown by Shai, a five year old boy who had witnessed the shooting of both of his parents. He drew a picture resembling the experience that shows a sky, sun, birds and butterflies and with a line of boundary between the enemy and his own parents. He replays this traumatizing experience while preserving the terrible ending of the event. He expresses the guilt he feels about not being able to save his parents. However, this type of play therapy was a therapeutic way for Shai making sense of what happened, while reducing anxiety and acceptance of the tragedy. "Play therapy is based upon the fact that play is the child's natural medium of self expression. It is an opportunity which is given to the child to "play out" his feelings and problems just as, in certain types of adult therapy, an individual "talks out" his difficulties." (Axline, 1947, p. 9) "Non-directive play therapy ... may be described as an opportunity that is offered to the child to experience growth under the most favorable conditions." (Axline, 1947, p. 16)
Axline strongly believed in non-directive therapy, a therapy in which the client get to be himself completely and is able to direct where he wants the conversation to go. She believed in a strong drive within every individual that strives for maturity, independence and self direction. Axline felt that once an individual develops good self confidence, he is able to bring his "self-concept" out of the shadow and let his self realization come to fruition, which then, he comes across as well adjusted. As Axline wrote in her book, Play Therapy, she says, " Non-directive therapy is based on the assumption that the individual has within himself, not only the ability to solve his own problems satisfactory, but also this growth impulse that makes mature behavior more satisfactory than immature behavior" (p. 15). "Since play is the natural medium for self expression, the child is given the opportunity to play out his accumulated feelings of tension, frustration, insecurity, aggression, fear, bewilderment, confusion" (Axline, 1947, p. 16). Words of Wisdom “Perhaps it is easier to understand that even though we do not have the wisdom to enumerate the reasons for the behavior of another person, we can grant that each individual does have their private world of meaning, conceived out of the integrity and dignity of their personality.” ― Virginia M. Axline “Perhaps there is more understanding and beauty in life when the glaring sunlight is softened by the patterns of shadows. Perhaps there is more depth in a relationship that has weathered some storms. Experience that never disappoints or saddens or stirs up feeling is a bland experience with little challenge or variation of color. Perhaps it's when we experience confidence and faith and hope that we see materialize before our eyes this builds up within us a feeling of inner strength, courage, and security. We are all personalities that grow and develop as a result of our experiences, relationships, thoughts, and emotions. We are the sum total of all the parts that go into the making of a life.” - Virginia M. Axline, Dibs: In Search of Self She wrote a novel called Play Therapy written in 1947. We will incorporate an understanding for a child's need for play. We will have patience with children and let them lead the way. The Gesundheit! Institute is a project founded by Dr. Hunter "Patch" Adams in 1971, located outside of Hillsboro in Pocahontas County, West Virginia. Another example of Hospital Play Therapy: The Institute states its vision as being dedicated to revolutionizing health care delivery by replacing what the Institute sees as greed and competition with generosity and compassion. Creation of the Gesundheit! Institute was a topic of the 1998 movie Patch Adams starring Robin Williams. Children under the age of nine or ten do not possess the verbal capacity necessary to participate effectively in family interviews. Family Play Therapy allows the therapist to assume a variety of roles in interacting with the family. These could include, a play facilitator, role model, participant and teacher. Class Activity Questions &