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INTERACTION AND COORDINATION

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Saray Hernández Jiménez

on 18 December 2013

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Transcript of INTERACTION AND COORDINATION

INTERACTION AND COORDINATION
What is interaction?
Interaction enables living beings to receive and respond to stimulus.
Interaction involves different elements:
How do receptors work?
Receptors are sensory structures which detect external and internal stimuli.
In plants, cells inside the organism detect stimuli.
in animals , the sense organs are the receptor. these detect stimuli.

How does coordination work in animals?
Coordination systems work together to process information received from stimuli and produce appropriate responses.
There are two types of coordination:


HOW DOES THE NERVOUS SYSTEM WORK?
The nervous system receives information, interprets it, and transmit a response to the responsive organs or effector.
stimuli
These are detectable changes in the internal or external environment. They provoke responses.
physical:

Light,sound,temperature and pressure,etc
Chemical:
The presence or absence of chemical substances.
Biotic:
Changes caused by the presence of other living beings.
Receptors
These are structures which receive stimuli from the external or internal environment. In animals, the receptors are the sense organs.
Coordination system
These consist of organs which process information received by the receptors and produce a response.
Responsive organs
These are structures which produce responses,such as muscles and glands in animals.
Sigh
they detect light.

smell
eyes:
nose and appendage: they detect chemical substances dissolved in air or water.
Taste
tongue:
It detects chemical substances dissolved in water.
It is covered with tiny taste buds.
Hearing
ears:
they detect sounds.
they can distinguish a range of sounds
touch
lateral line,appendage and skin:
they detect pressure, touch, pain and temperature changes.
Nervous system:
Regulates the body's activities and responses.
Endocrine system:
Regulates and coordinates the body functions by means of chemical substances called hormones.
The sense organs receive a stimulus.
A cheetah sees a gazelle. A gazelle hears a cheetah.
Responsive organs
A response is produced in the muscles of the animals. Immediately, both animals start to run.
Coordination systems
The cheetah and the gazelle process this information.
How do animals respond to stimuli?
the nervous system in vertebrate
-The central nervous system: this consists of the brain and the spinal cord.
-The peripheral nervous system: this consists of nerves which originate in the brain and in the spinal cord.


-Afferent nerves: These nerves go from the receptive organs to the central nervous system.
-Efferent nerves: These nerves go from the central nervous system to the responsive organs.
spinal cord
Brain
nerves
Nervous systems in invertebrates
Invertebrate have simpler nervous systems.
Ganglia system
The ganglia are joined by the nerves cords. The largest ganglia are grouped together in the head and make up the brain.
brain
nerve cord
ganglia
Nerve net system
Jellyfish have nerve cells which form a nerve net extending throughout the animal. Nerve impulses are transmitted in all directions.
nerve nets
How do the responsive organs work?
there are two types of responses to stimuli:
MOTOR RESPONSES
The response is movement
Motor response in vertebrates
The responsive organs, or effectors, control motor and endocrine. Motor response are controlled by organs in the motor system, which consists of:


bones support the body and act as levers during movement. The skeleton is internal
-Skeletal system:
- MUSCULAR SYSTEM:
muscles are contractile organs attached to the bones by tendons.
Motor responses in invertebrate
Many invertebrates possess an exoskeleton, or hard outer shell, which protects them.
ENDOCRINE RESPONSES
The responses is the release of hormones.
Endocrine responses are controlled by glands in the endocrine system. These glands produce hormones which:
-are released into the blood.
-control and coordinate activities throughout the body.
The endocrine system regulates functions which require maintained responses.
How does coordination work in plants?
Plants responses to stimuli by hormones.
Hormones act as chemical messengers which enable plants to respond to many factors.
in plants , cells inside the organism detect stimuli.
What is tropism?
Tropism is a type of response in plants which permanently changes the direction of a plant´s growth.
There are two types of tropism:
-Positive tropism: the plant grows in the direction of the source of the stimuli.
-Negative tropism: the plant grows away from the source of the stimulus.
GEOTROPISM
Response to gravity
root
seed
stem
PHOTOTROPISM
RESPONSE TO LIGHT
sun
HYDROTROPISM
RESPONSE TO WATER
Root
Wet
cotton
wool
THIGMOTROPISM
RESPONSE TO CONTACT
What are nastic movements?
Nastic movements are temporary responses of particular parts of a plant to external stimuli. The plant later returns to its original position
runners
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