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Transcript of Non-experimental Research
Science is the
intellectual enterprise that builds over time.
compare data and assumption
accept/modify or abandon assumption
Scientific Method: How science corrects itself
In a nutshell, non-experimental research methods...
describe something that has occurred
examine the relationships between things
no manipulation of the situation, circumstances or experiences of participants
no administration or control of a treatment
collect data without making changes or introducing treatment
does not support or claim causality
1. Naturalistic observation
2. Relational approach
3. Indigenous methods
"To see is not always to believe"
- Camitan (2015)
The Muller-Lyer Illusion
. The vertical lines are the same length but appear unequal due to the direction of the fins in the two cases.
the description of naturally occurring events without the intervention of the investigator
the first step in understanding thoughts and behaviors.
threats to validity of observations:
1. delimiting behavior
2. reactivity of participants
Some Examples of Naturalistic Observations
inventory of specific behaviors displayed in a specific setting
observation and measure
observation done discretely
observation done indirectly
1. Case Study
detailed examination of one individual or a
comparison between a small group of individuals
detailed self-reported information from a large number of individuals
Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study (2013)
significant number of his participants have experienced having an intimate partner (48.1%);
watching/reading pornographic videos/materials (44.2%);
intimate kissing (42.8%);
petting in a generally public but dark and secluded place (30.8%);
oral sex (26.3%);
premarital sex with person they like and intend to marry (27.7%);
and, premarital sex with someone they like but do not intend to marry (25.9%).
Few have reported having engaged in casual or “one-night stand” sex (19.2%),
sex with person of the same-sex (14.2%),
paying for sex (14.2%),
and being paid for sex (11.1%).
can provide a very multifaceted approach
can give several angles on the information
allows descriptive research to provide an insight into life experiences in a way that other research methods can’t
can remove barriers of strict academic approaches so that researchers can witness how others experience an event.
does not allow assessment of relationship between events
can sometimes produce deficient data
difficulty in maintaining strictly descriptive data (antropomorphizing)
data from case studies are not generalizable
can be influenced by expectations
reactivity is always present in survey
Some interesting correlations
Attempts to show how variables are related to one another
ex post facto
data that are related come from naturally occurring events and do not result from direct manipulation by the researcher
tries to determine whether the value of one variable depends on the value of another
determine simultaneously the degree and direction of a relationship with a single statistics
does not determine causality (ice cream sales does not necessarily cause rise in crime rate)
measures the degree and direction of the relationship between two variables
from -1.0 to 0.0 to +1.0
magnitude of the coefficient indicates the degree of the relationship (larger means stronger, smaller means weaker)
sign indicates the direction, whether positive or negative
variables tend to increase or decrease together
one variable increases as the other decreases
is a measure of the linear correlation (dependence) between two variables X and Y
Limitations of Correlational Research
cannot discern if:
X and Y are related through accident,
X caused Y,
Y caused X,
or some third factor caused both