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Transcript of Imposing Wilderness
Terrains of Resistance Neumann's Central Questions (pg 1): Imposing Wilderness Struggles Over Livelihood & Nature Preservation in Africa By: Roderick P. Neumann (2002) Ch. 2 Political and Moral Economy
on Mount Meru Kevin Sammie Elise Ch. 4 Protecting the Fauna of the Empire:
The Evolution of National Parks in Tanzania Andrea Ch.5 Patterns of Predation at
Arusha National Park Drew Ch.6 Village Moral Economy
and the New Colonialism Lindsay Ashley 1903 Forest Conservation Ordinance (Germans)
All African settlement, cultivation, burning, and grazing outlawed
1921 Forest Ordinance (Brits restructure) -> Licenses*
Is the forest produce for their use only?
Customary Rights ~ lenient policy Natural Resource Control and the Colonial State Conservation vs. Customary Rights Compromise between factions within European society
Preservation promoted development
Key focus: Science - ban policies favoring customary rights
Debates over laws: simultaneously eliminated and protected African rights
Control was limited The Hunt: The culture of the hunt sportsmanship vs. inhuman slaughter (Motivation?)
Bees (beekepers and Honey hunters)
constant pressure to eliminate privileges Community coherence and complicity - found ways to resist.
Both sides lacked power and used own moral language to legitimize Conservation Law and Landed Moral Economy " " Formal Resistance Informal Resistance written, formal appeals to park officials
explicitly acknowledge state authority, but attempt to make a moral appeal to "consider validity of local customary claims"
appeals have been turned down
Meru do not have land deeds, claims are legitimized by oral histories and lineage
park authorities do not see these claims as legitimate rejection of formal resistance has lead to informal resistance
create an appearance of occupancy and permanence to stake land claims
examples: construction of school near park border, planting crops widely
rely on secrecy, village solidarity
community-wide resistance to laws, mutual protection Violations of Village Moral Economy park access restrictions
mistreatment of villagers by park guards
crop-raiding by park animals "The Moral Community" dualistic social lives of park guards lead to instability for Meru
strict/overzealous adherence to law
negotiation with Meru in times of economic need
villagers try to become friends with park guards, make moral appeal
park authority tries to limit possibility for relationship to form between them Play for 1min Activity! Government, game keepers and tourists vs. the Meru 4. Effects on the Rural Economy
Agricultural and Land Degradation
Passing of animals destroys crops
Animal poaching laws make defense against animals difficult 1. Errors and Contradictions of Park Administration
Park ecology shaped by man
Brush clearing is illegal
except when done by park officials
Wrongful arrests of villagers and Meru people 2. Natural Resource Crimes
Fuelwood collection (Female)
Grazing on park property (Male)
Cutting grass (Female) 3. Poaching Problems
Illegal hunting of animals
Defense of Crops
Males -Who decides what Africa ‘should’ look like?
-Where and how have these ideas of the pleasing African landscape been constructed?
-What does this landscape vision mean for African peasants and pastoralists living and laboring there?
-To what degree and in what ways do they resist this vision? Who: Meru Peasants
What: Conflicts between nature protection and rural livelihood in Africa
-Violations of human rights and local property claims
When: 1988 and 1989-90
Where: Arusha National Park - northern highlands of Tanzania
Why: Analytical interest of Neumann-
-political struggles over landscape meanings among different social groups
-confluence of struggles over meaning and struggles over land and resource access. Five W's: Great Stakes of National Parks Economically Ecologically Nature tourism as a
top foreign exchange Relief from the
8 billion dollars in
external debt Sanctuaries for
-Black Rhino Ecological richness
in general Colonial rule has shaped the political and moral economies of land on Mount Meru Pre-Colonial Settlement Mountain forests as spiritual refuge - symbolic to collective identity of Meru
Subsistence lifestyle primarily farming, cattle, & gathering natural resources
Shrines and Descendants
Land as moral order The Colonial Encounter The Colonist Effects Privatization of land
Specialization in cash crop = coffee
Resistance to colonialism in Meru after forceful alteration of existing subsistence living
Socioeconomic class among Meru - loss of moral economy
Colonialism produces 3 economic regions of Meru
-Export crop production plantations
-Outlying areas supplying plantations
Marginalization of Meru and a growing population Displacement due to "improvement" of the land
Meru to Kingori (infested with flies and mosquitos)
Paying off of Chiefs for cooperation
Resistance and its consequences The Meru Land Case "The Meru Land Case
shows how a society can quickly be divided by religion, class, age, and lineage and how resistance can lead to violence" (75). Land Production & Settlement in Contemporary Meru Cash Crop = Coffee
The specialization in a cash crop
Meru introduced into the World Market
Vanishing of original reciprocity, subsistence living and moral economy
Intensification "Although Tanzania has been independent for over 30 years, the original colonial settlement alienations remain intact" (96). Lutheran Missionaries & the Meru
German vs. Meru battle and consequences
German rule and authority of land use on Mount Meru The peasant’s interest in the land expressed through his actions, is incommensurate with scenic landscape. Most, (not all) European landscape painting was addressed to a visitor from the city, later called a tourist; the landscape is his view, the splendor of it is his reward” (John Berger)
“A national park is the quintessential landscape of consumption for modern society”
- Talk about how the view of nature is different for different groups.
“First nature”- that which is unaltered by humans.
“Second nature”- which is the institutions- the market, the state, money that have developed to regulate commodity exchange Smith’s versions of nature “View from below” as the moral economy (Thompson)
"The landless (80 percent of the rural population in the early nineteenth century) were totally deprived of the right to hunt any animals, which further worsened their already marginal condition."
“peasant societies have a ‘subsistence ethic’, and that poor peasants are about all risk-averse. That is the bottom line for peasants is a right to subsistence”
Primary means to subsist
Social arrangements to ensure access to the land
Social relationships Ch. 3 Conservation vs. Custom:
State Seizure of Natural Resource Control Colonial authorities were well aware that the new natural resource laws were obstructing African practices and eliminating what were perceived as inalienable rights, but proceed in the name of efficiency and science management 1928 sparked idea for park
advocacy from England
Preservation of the Fauna of the Empire (SPFE)
Logic behind it was:
sanctuary for wildlife
to preserve, stewardship
tourism and decreased crop and livestock raiding Tourism
Motivator for expansion
Expansion explicitly linked with economic development Parks eliminated rights
Native people concerned with rights over grazing, hunting and forest products
The National Parks Ordinance to protect rights
But, colonial state decided rights and who was entitled to them
"Those who were displaced in the process, watched European interests in wildlife triumph over customary patterns of land use" (p. 122)
collapse of moral economy Economic development and cultural change halted
turmoil began illegal settlement, grazing, trespass and cultivation encroachment Switch in government
new president adopted IMF's structural adjustment program
Mt Meru ideal start of Arusha Complex problem
Park authorities may or may not have good intentions to conserve wildlife
trying to kick Meru off land altogether?
Ultimately, the park system has caused the environment to be degraded, not conserved.
Meru have no incentive to abide by park's rules
Meru are aware of park's purposes, but their survival is dependent on the understanding and integration of the subsistence economy "The objective is the restoration of a state of naturalness, but first it is necessary to establish what is a state of naturalness... It is an ever-changing state related to the erosion cycle, plant succession and the impact of animals on their environment. It is 'the balance of nature,' if you like, but the balance swings"
-Vesey-FitzGerald The End Issues
Community Park Officials
Wildlife Conservationists Restrictions on
customary resource uses Predation of wildlife on
cultivate lands Livestock
Trespass Illegal Hunting
Wood Theft Consequent Ecological
Costs such as
Species Loss Reduced access
to ancestral lands Nature Tourism as
a top foreign exchange