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Western Europe-AP World

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Seema Sakaria

on 9 October 2013

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Transcript of Western Europe-AP World

origin of plague
The Plague (1347-1350)
Too many diseased people; not enough hospitals
Large periods of famine led to malnutrition, susceptibility to disease, and controlled population
Population loss led to increased productivity
shortage of priests-decrease in learning
High mortality rate-fall in production, shortage of goods, and inflation
Price of slaves rose
Flagellants-people who whipped themselves as penance for their and society's sins
believed that Black Death was God's punishment for humanity's corruption
Location 3
Western Europe
By: Krupa Jacob, Seema Sakaria, Karina Wong, Carolyn Wilson
RISE OF ROME (B.C.E 753-A.D.E 476)
PAX ROMANA
27 B.C.E.-180 C.E.
ART
sculptures
realism
idealistic
mosaics
ARCHITECTURE
domes
arches
columns
Pantheon
aqueducts
"All roads lead to Rome"
increased trade and commerce
RELIGION
Christianity
polytheistic
LAW
Civil Law
Law of Nations
innocent until proven guilty
CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN
Gain more freedom
ran businesses and went out
some work at home for family
POETRY
Virgil
Livy
ENTERTAINMENT
Chariot races
Gladiator Fights
"Bread and Circuses"
MIDDLE AGES (500 C.E-1400 C.E)
THE CRUSADES (1096 CE-1272 CE)
CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE (800 CE-888 CE)
Charlemagne...
valued education and created curriculum (couldn't write)
founded school at Aachen and appoint Alcuin of York;
worked closely with Christian Church
set up strong, effective government
appoint nobles to rule local regions
appoint missi dominici to check on roads, listen to problems, and see that justice was done
Grandsons divide empire into three after his death in 800s; Muslims conquered Sicily, Magyars raided Germany, and Vikings raided small communities along European rivers
FEUDALISM
THE RISE OF ROME (753 BCE-476 CE)
Legend-Romulus and Remus founded Rome and raised by a she-wolf
Monarchy to oligarchic republic to empire
Government
Senate-most powerful governing body made up of 300 patricians
2 consuls-in event of war, Senate chooses a dictator
The Twelve Tables-written laws that made it possible for plebeians to appeal a judgment handed down by patrician judge
Germanic tribes
lived in small communities
mostly warriors, farmers, and herders
unwritten laws and customs
ruled by elected kings
Franks
strongest kingdom to the north of Rome
Clovis (466-511), King of Franks, conquers Roman province of Gaul; unites all tribes under single king
"The first king of what would become France"
Charlemagne (Charles the Great)
spent 46 battling with other groups; reunited much of Europe
called by Pope Leo III to help against rebellious nobles in Rome
marched south and crushed rebels on Christmas Day 800 CE
Carolingian Empire
Europe became dangerous- various barbaric groups invading small communities
Have no protecton; weak and ineffective kings
Feudalism
a political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service (need for protection)
World of Warriors- battled for power and feudal noble warfare was the way of life
Manors (or fief)
self-sufficient; serfs worked for vassals and nobles;
Work in order for food, shelter, and protection
Castles
military purposes
intimidate/remind lower classes of their wealth and power
"Holy Wars" between Christians and Muslims (Saracens) over the territory of Jerusalem
200-year war that consisted of eight crusades
Muslims invaded the Byzantine Empire and Emperor Lexius I asked his enemy Pope Urban II from Western Europe for help since the Turks were moving in from the east
enemies after 1054 schism
1095: Pope Urban II make speech at the Council of Clermont urging Christians to engage in holy wars
Crusades eventually became about claiming lands dominated by Muslims and to conquer land
The Age of Exploration (15th-16th century)
Prehistoric Europe (7000 BCE-1200 BCE)
-Neolithic Era
-uses of metals were introduced throughout the world
-Bronze Age
-Minoan (Crete)
-Mycenaean (Southern Greece)
The Fall of Rome (476 CE)
Reformation
reformers tried to reform corrupt Catholic Church
Martin Luther protested against the church for selling indulgences; posted The 95 Theses on the church in 1517
impact on England: Magna Carta limit king's power
Reformation types: the Catholic and Counter
Catholic Reformation- not strict; goal was to correct abuses from within the church
Counter Reformation- direct response to get people back into the Church

Works Cited
Works Cited
"Charlemagne." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2013.

"The Christian Broadcasting Network." Overview of the CrusadesN.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2013.

Dijkstra, Henk. History of the Ancient & Medieval World. 2nd ed. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 1996. Print.

“Italian Renaissance.” 2013. The History Channel website. Sep 22 2013

McKay, John P., Bennett D. Hill, John Buckler, Clare Haru Crowston, Merry E. Wiesner, and Joe Perry. A History of Western Society. Boston: Bedford/St.Martin's, 2003. Print.

"Middle Ages." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2013.

Origin of plague is unknown
Spread all throughout Europe
Disease in bloodstream of fleas; plague carriers (rats) traveled much by ship
rats avoided travel outside cities; country people were safe
No cure; Physicians tried to ease the pain
Two types:
Bubonic Plague- flea transmitted the disease by its' bites
Pneumonic Plague- transmitted directly from one person to another
Authority from London to Paris to Rome tried to bring about sanitation

The Renaissance
14th-17th century
known as “rebirth”
started in Florence
showed power by putting their money into the arts
created a leeway for the arts to become imperative
art, science, architecture, technology flourished
famous artists:
Leonardo di Vinci
Michelangelo
most famous and powerful family-Medici Family
Humanism
Causes:
frequent civil wars over succession to the throne
western invaders (Huns and Visigoths)
greater separation between classes
high taxes to support the army
farmland over cultivated-loss of productivity
upper class devoted itself to self-interest and luxury
Roman army lacked the discipline and training of earlier Roman army
"The Great Schism"
reliance on slave labor discouraged Romans from exploring new technology
need to replace citizen soldiers with paid soldiers
population decrease
Effects
led to the Dark Ages
start of feudalism
loss of knowledgtaxesrisme
lack of inventions and technology
disruption of trade
increased militade
population shift since people were moving away from the rural areas
plagues and diseases
breakdown of infrastructure

explored to find new trade routes to the East; wanted direct access to spices/goods
New technology-printing press, gunpowder, the magnetic compass, astrolabe, maps, and caravels
countries involved were England, Spain, Portugal, France, and Italy
Portugal was first country to find a trade route to India
Prince Henry the Navigator and Vasco de Gama-Portugal men that had voyages around the Africa to get to India
Christopher Columbus
Spanish explorer; found the New World
the Renaissance spread throughout Europe
New Inventions
Church faced critism
they maintained their expensive
lifestyles by selling indulgences
Medieval Art
Renaissance Art

Conquered most of Italy; by the 1st century BC, ruled Spain, North Africa and Greece
Roman Army-unpaid citizen soldiers well-trained in military skills and provided own weapons
expansion provided opportunities for power-greedy individuals led to collapse of democracy
Julius Caesar- dictator; nephew Octavian (Augustus) became Rome's first emperor
Effects
end feudalism
increase wealth of Church and power of papacy
increased trade between Europe and Middle East
spread of ideas
increased knowledge and intellectual development in Europe
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