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Transcript of Social Psychology
" Spare the rod and Spoil the child"
"Many hands make light work"
"Birds of a feather flock together"
"Two heads are better than one"
"Too many cooks spoil the broth"
Give your opinion about the following statements:
Define Social Psychology
Understand the basic theory in the area of Social Psychology and relate them to daily life
A. Role theory
- It holds a substantial proposition of observable, day to day social behavior is simply carrying out their roles, much as actors carry out their roles on the stage or ballplayers perform theirs on the field.
Theoretical Perspective in Social Psychology
Social - Society
Psychology - Human Behavior
- It studies how people act, think, and feel in the context of society.
- A systematic study of the nature and causes of
human social behavior
Human social behavior – the activities of the individuals in the presence of others, the process of social interaction between two or more persons, and the relationships among individuals and the groups to which they belong
Social Psychology - Definition
Prof. Rosel O. Cipriano RPm, RPT
The impact that one individual has on another
The impact that a group has on its individual members (Norms and rules)
The impact that individual members have on the groups to which they belong leadership
The impact that one group has on another group
Core Concerns - Social Psychology
Relationship to other fields
- The scientific study of human society.
- It examines social institutions, stratification within society, social process and the structure of social units.
- The scientific study of the individual and individual behavior
- The study of human culture. Anthropologists study the beliefs and traditions of society
People spend much of their lives participating as members of the groups and organizations.
Within these groups, people occupy distinct positions.
Each of these positions entails a role, which is set of functions performed by the person for each group. A person’s role is defined by expectations (held by other group members) that specify how he or she should perform.
Propositions - Role Theory
Groups often formalize these expectations as norms, which are rules specifying how a person should behave, what rewards will result for performance, and what punishments will result for nonperformance.
Individuals usually carry out their roles and perform in accordance with the prevailing norms.
Group members check each individual’s performance to determine whether it conforms to the group’s norms
Propositions - Role Theory
It implies that if we have information about the role expectations for a specified positions, we can predict a significant portion of the behavior of the person occupying that position.
It maintains that a person’s role determines not only behavior but also beliefs and attitudes.
In general, the roles that people occupy not only channel their behavior but also shape their attitudes.
1. It has difficulty explaining certain kind of social behavior
Deviant behavior any behavior that violates or contravenes the norms defining a given role.
2. It can’t explain how role expectation came to be what they are in the first place.
Limitations - Role Theory
People will be more likely to perform a specific behavior it is followed directly by the occurrence of something pleasurable or by the removal of something aversive
Proponents: Pavlov, Thorndike, Allport, Hull
b. Reinforcement Theory
Refers to events that are directly observable, Any event that leads to an alteration or change in behavior is called stimulus .
Reinforcement is any favorable outcome that results from a response
Conditioning – a contingency is established between emitting a response and subsequently receiving a reinforcement
Stimulus discrimination – occurs when a person learns the exact conditions under which a response will be reinforced
Central Concept - Reinforcement theory
1. Social Learning theory (Bandura)
- It holds that individuals acquire new responses through conditioning and imitation. Both imitation and conditioning are important process in socialization and they help to explain how person s acquire complex social behavior
Imitation – the learner watches the model’s behavior and thereby comes to understand how to behave in a similar manner.
Supporting theories - Reinforcement theory
1. It portrays individuals primarily as reacting to environmental stimuli rather than as initiating behavior based on imaginative or creative thought. The theory does not account easily creativity, innovations or invention.
2. It largely ignores or downplays other motivations. It characterizes social behavior as hedonistic , with individuals striving to maximize profit from outcomes.
Limitations - Reinforcement Theory
Social Exchange Principle ?
2. Social Exchange Theory (Cook, Homans, Kelly & Thibaut)
- It assumes that individuals have freedom of choice and often face social situations in which they must choose among alternative actions
- It states that individuals are hedonistic – try to maximize rewards and minimize costs
Equity – it exists in a relationship when participants feel that the rewards they receive are proportional to the costs they beat
Supporting theories - Reinforcement theory
- It states that mental activities of the individual are important determinants of social behavior.
- Mental activities are called cognitive process – perception, memory, judgment, problem solving and decision making.
- Influenced by the ideas of Kofka, Kohler and other theorists in the Gestalt movement and taken the concept – that people respond to configurations of stimuli rather than to a single, discrete stimulus.
c. Cognitive Theory
What will you choose to learn?
- depict human as active in selecting and interpreting stimuli. (Fiske, Taylor, Markus, Zajonc, Wyer and Srull)
1. Because they can’t possibly attend to all the complex stimuli that surround them, they select only those stimuli that are important or useful to them and ignore the others.
2. They actively control which categories or concepts they use to interpret the stimuli in the environment.
Modern Cognitive Theory
- which maintains that individuals strive to hold
ideas that are consistent or congruous with
one another, rather than ideas that are inconsistent or incongruous.
Important Social relation (environment)
• Cognitive structure – which refers broadly to any form of organization among cognitions (concepts and beliefs)
• Schema – form (greek) – It refers to the form or basic sketch of what we know about people and things.
Cognitive Consistency - Principle
1. It simplifies and sometimes oversimplifies – the way in which people process information, an inherently complex phenomenon
2. They must be inferred from what people say and do.
Cognitive theory - Limitations
- Stresses cognitive process (thinking and reasoning), but it places much more emphasis on the interaction between the individual and society.
- Person's behavior is constructed through give and take during his or her interaction with others.
- Person's behavior emerges continually through communication and interaction with others.
Symbolic Interaction Theory
d. Symbolic Interaction Theory
What costume will she choose?
- Balance of rationality and emotion
- Individuals is depicted as a specific personality type - an other directed person who is concerned primarily with maintaining self respect by meeting others standard
- It places too much emphasis on consensus and cooperation and therefore neglects or downplays the importance of conflict
Limitations - Symbolic Interaction theory
This are Individuals whose opinions are important to the person
- It views humans as proactive and goal seeking by formulating plans of action to achieve their goals.
- The self occupies a central place in this theory because social order is hypothesized to rest in part of self control
Can you see me?
People attempt maximize their profits because those resources help them to survive and perpetuate their genes by producing behavior that tends to pass itself on to the next generation
Evolutionary Psychology - locates the roots of social behavior in our genes and, therefore, intimately links the psychological and social to the biological.
e. Evolutionary theory
Looking glass self
- It recognizes the importance of the self in social interaction
- It stresses the central role of symbolic communication and language in personality and society
- It addresses the processes involved in achieving consensus and cooperation
- It illuminates why people try to maintain face and avoid embarrassment
Strengths -Symbolic Interaction Theory
What theory that would best explain social phenomena?
Summary - Theoretical Perspective
- Circular reasoning
- Alternative outcomes
Limitations - Evolutionary Theory