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Transcript of Emotional Resilience
Case Study Activity:
Identifying Protective and Risk Factors
Case 1: Adam
Case 2: Fran
Protective and Risk Factors
: A predictor of better outcomes particularly in situations of risk or adversity (Goldstein & Brooks, 2005).
A measurable characteristic in a group of individuals or their situation that predicts a negative outcome on a speciﬁc outcome criteria (Goldstein & Brooks, 2005).
Risk and Protective Factors of Resilience in Children and Youth
Taking a closer look at a few of the factors that contribute to resilience will highlight the complex nature of resilience, as a result of the numerous intervening variables contributing to its development.
Two of the factors that will be examined more closely include:
1. Executive functioning
Both of these factors are examples of protective/risk factors under the broad category of “child characteristics” .
What are Executive Functions?
Executive Functions are cognitive control mechanisms:
inhibition and self-control
maintaining and shifting attention
maintain goal-directed behaviour
Resilience in Educational Settings
Teaching through storybooks
Self Evaluation of Resilience
Ahern, N. R., Ark, P., & Byers, J. (2008). Resilience and coping strategies in adolescents. Pediatric
Diamond, A. (2012). Activities and programs that improve children's executive functions.
Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21
Duckworth, A. & Seligman, M. (2005). Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents.
Psychological Science, 16
Goldstein, S., & Brooks, R. B. (Eds.). (2005). Handbook of resilience in children. New York: Springer.
Masten, A. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development.
American Psychologist, 56
McMillan, J. H., & Reed, D. F. (1994). At-risk students and resiliency: Factors Contributing to Academic Success. The Clearing House, 67(3), 137 – 140.
Rak, C. F. (2002). Heroes in the nursery: Three case studies in resilience. Journal of clinical psychology, 58(3), 247-260.
Saarni, C. (1999). The development of emotional competence. New York: Guildford Press.
Speight, N. P. (2009). The relationship between self-efficacy, resilience and academic achievement among African-American Urban Adolescent Students. Published Thesis. Retrieved from: http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:3380333
Wenzel, A., Gunnar, M., and Masten, A. (2013). Protective role of executive function skills in high-risk environment. In R. Trembley, M. Boivin & Peters, R. (eds.)
Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development
[online]. Retrieved from: www.child-encyclopedia.com/documents/Wenzel-GunnarANGxp1-Resilience.pdf
Who Am I?
Using your mobile device, please respond to the questions to follow as per the instructions below:
By the end of this session we hope you will:
Recognize protective factors and risk factors as they relate to resilience
Appreciate the complex nature of interactions in resilience theory and research
Apply resilience concepts to educational settings
Assess your own resilience and protective factors
Illustration created from Masten (2001)
How do we study resilience?
Social Cognitive Theory and Ecological Systems Theory
Looking at the factors supporting or threatening resilience in individuals including their
interactions within their social networks and the wider society
Executive Functions and Resilience
EF skills are more important than academic intelligence for school success (Duckworth & Seligman, 2005).
Teachers may (unknowingly?) value behavioural self-control (or its results) over intelligence in determining grades
EF skills are at risk in students exposed to high levels of adversity (Wenzel & Gunnar, 2013)
But...EF skills are also protective for high-risk children
EF skills appear to be responsive to intervention
Low self esteem or depression
External locus of control
Poor impulse control
The individuals represented by each of the questions in our ‘Who am I?’ poll illustrate the wide spread of domains in which human beings can demonstrate resilience.
In Kaplan’s (2013) reconceptualization of the concept of resilience, he references recent studies that highlight the fact that
individuals may vary in adjustment depending upon the domain under consideration
. This has several implications for the conceptualization of resilience, and ultimately begs the question of whether resilience research should be defined in some overall criterion or in terms of particular context-specific favourable outcomes.
Consider this debate within resilience
research as we proceed to explore
the concept of resilience.
Correlates of resilience
Longitudinal correlates and possible causation
Interventions to improve resilience
Complex systems involved in resilience
Strong cultural identity
Access to health care
Economic stability–ability to earn a livable wage
Social support–connections to family and friends
Affiliation with a supportive religious or faith community
Positive view of self
1. Which specific teaching practices do you think help contribute to resilience?
2. What components to her classroom help to make her teaching successful?
3. What challenges (if any) can you see with an activity such as this? What other factors might hinder the success in developing resilience?
Self-Efficacy and Resilience
people’s beliefs about their capabilities to exercise control over their own level of functioning and over events that affect their lives.
Self-efficacy beliefs are
informed through four sources
of efficacy information:
Physiological and emotional arousal
Self-efficacy exerts its
influence through four major processes
Saarni (1999) notes that the greater degree of internal resources and self-efficacy beliefs available to adolescents, the more comprehensive their coping mechanisms will be. Therefore, self-efficacy may play a key role in the ability to cope and persist with difficult situations in resilient youth.
This theorizing has been demonstrated in empirical literature:
Self-efficacy and resilience
‘Profile of a resilient student’, McMillan and Reed (1994)
Speight (2009), explored the contributory effect of select demographic variables (i.e. authoritative parenting, role models, and SES) on the variance in self-efficacy and resilience. Results of her study indicated that resilience was significantly and positively correlated with self-efficacy:
Self-efficacy = beneficial to one’s coping ability = beneficial to one’s resilience
In examining the implications of self-efficacy during childhood and adolescents for teachers and parents, Pajares (2005) notes that we should ensure that student’s interpretations of their successes and failures are adaptive, as mastery experiences are a major contributor to one’s self-efficacy (Bandura, 1986).
One Roman poet Virgil wrote that “they are able who think they are able.”
One important characteristic of successful individuals, as we saw in our celebrity “Who am I?” game, is that failure and adversity do not undermine their self-efficacy beliefs.
“It is the meaning of our experiences which constitutes reality” – Alfred Schutz
How might teachers put this quote into action in their teaching practices?
“When failure is normative, resilience is second nature” (Pajares, 2005, p. 345)
Often, all that is needed is an adaptive perspective on failure. After Thomas Edison made an estimated 1, 000 unsuccessful attempts at inventing the light bulb, a reporter asked, “how did it feel to fail 1,000 times?” Edison replied, “I didn’t fail 1,000 times. The light bulb was an invention with 1,000 steps.
Developmental Systems Approach
Identifying individual resilience and factors that make a difference:
yielded good descriptions of resilience phenomena
developed basic concepts and methodologies
focused on the individual
Embedding resilience in developmental and ecological systems, with a focus on process:
yielded a more dynamic accounting of resilience
adopted a developmental systems approach to theory and research on positive adaptation in the context of adversity or risk
focused on transactions among individuals and the many systems in which their development is embedded
Intervening to foster resilience:
focused on creating resilience by intervention directed at changing developmental pathways
Resilience research on multiple-systems levels, epigenetic processes, and neurobiological processes:
focused on understanding and integrating resilience across multiple levels of analysis
growing attention to epigenetic and neurobiological processes, brain development, and the ways that systems interact to shape development.
The History of and New Directions for Resilience Research
The scientific study of resilience emerged around 1970 when a group of pioneering researchers began to notice the phenomenon of positive adaptation among subgroups of children who were considered “at risk” for developing later psychopathy.