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History of Educational Leadership

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Anne Cannon

on 23 June 2014

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Transcript of History of Educational Leadership

Educational Leadership
Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow

Eras of Educational Leadership
Educational Leadership Theories
1800
1940
1980
1800-1940
The role of "Principal Teacher" is established due to to growing school populations. The teacher in this position was responsible for administrative duties, logistics and discipline. This position evolved into a powerful political position in the community. The first superintendent of schools is appointed in New York in 1837.
1940-1980
Teacher training schools become 4 year programs in most states.
1980 - present
Shifts in the global economy and international competition puts pressure on school leaders to equip students to be the best in the world. The focus of schooling is now on national standards, national curriculum and national testing.
Timeline of Education Leadership History
Principals gain authority and increase the value of their position by advocating for increased control over their schools and creating local associations for support: The National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) in 1916 and the National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP) in 1921 under the umbrella of the National Education Association (NEA) which was founded in 1857.
Principals eventually have no direct teaching requirement so they can advise, supervise, rate, hire and fire teachers. Principals are considered spiritual and scientific leaders. Surprisingly, by 1905, 62% of elementary principals are women with males dominating the job in secondary schools.
Principals strategically become head of communities by reaching out to parents and civic groups. Home-school partnerships are born at this time. Principals in NY initiate the first school open houses and community nights. Parent Teacher Association originates at this time.
Principals are the enforcers of compulsory attendance laws enacted in all states (1852-1913)
"For many observers at the time, the principal was the school" (Kafka, 2009, p. 324).
High school and college leaders agree to the adoption of the Carnegie Unit to standardize high school credits for college.
The Supreme Court case Brown vs. Board of Education in 1954 to prohibit racial segregation in government funded schools causes great changes for principals. In the southern US, black principals are removed so that they won't be supervising white teachers and children. In the north, community pressure causes white principals to be replaced with black principals. The number of black principals decreases by 50-90% between 1954-1970. This is a terrible backlash since black principals are community leaders and role models for black teachers and recruits.
Educational leaders are embroiled in many religious debates over the First Admendment (separation of church and state), private school funding/tuition. Many states revise their laws that once allowed public funds to pay for tuition at religious schools.
After World War II the nation's fear of communism and the patriotic post war pulse changed the role of the school administrator. It was expected that school's be governed with the help of faculty and even students.
Female principals are likely to have teaching and lunchroom duties. It is difficult for women to be secondary principals due to the need for advanced degrees or certificates.
The GI Bill (1944) pays for college education for veterans (males). This, too, impacts the changing demographics of school leadership since these white males will earn advanced degrees in educational leadership that will allow them to rise to the administrative positions in schools.
Leaders of local school boards and administrators make plans and accommodations for students with disabilities , baby boomers and immigrant students.
U.S. Department of Education receives cabinet status (1980).
With the Russian's launch of Sputnik (1957) citizens and government demand funding for math and science so that the nation's youth can continue to compete in the space race.
Literacy, technology, numeracy, standard's based education, backward design, project based learning and vocational education are some of the buzz words in education.
The student achievement of nations is compared globally with the use of the Internet.
Computer technology and the Internet changes the way school professionals communicate and educate.
A Nation at Risk (1983)
reports that the nation's education system is in need of reform in lieu of the findings of mediocre educational performance. This stirs a movement of political and educational leaders to search for solutions to the problem.
Increasing parental pressures brings school choice in education to the forefront. This is the era of the rise of homeschooling, vouchers, charter schools, educational tax credit and scholarship programs.
No Child Left Behind Act
signed into law (2002). Li (2012) found that not compensating principals for the increased penalties associated with working with disadvantaged student populations caused high quality leaders to move to schools with less risk to professional reputation.
References
(History of Educational Leadership)
Townsend, T. (2009). Third mellennium leaders: Thinking and acting both locally and

globally.
Leadership and Policy in Schools
,
8
(4), 355-379. Doi:

10.1080/15700760802535278
Kafka, J. (2009). The principalship in historical perspective.
Peabody

Journal of Education. 84
(3), 318-330. doi: 10.1080/01619560902973506
Tuttle, L. (2009) A brief history of education in America. Retrieved from

http:www.cblpi.org/ftp/School%20Choice/EdHistory.pdf
Li, D. (2012). School accountability and principal mobiity: How No Child Left Behind

affects the allocation of school leaders. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Retrieved from economics.mit.edu/files/5437
Community: school leaders expected to strengthen moral character, increase work ethic, spread values of citizenship and create an educated public.
National: leaders in education embrace efficiency, democracy, social connections, and weather the storm of national controversy(war, civil rights, role of federal government).
International: schools become competitive globally as test scores rank nations in educational performance.
Internal Markets: competition of types of education systems within the nation (charter, private etc) puts pressure on all school leaders.
Autocratic Leadership
Leaders are born, not made
Leadership traits cannot be developed; rather, they are inherited
Plato penned the idea in
Republic
; Cattell developed the concepts in the 1930s before WWII
Research does not support Autocratic Leadership as an effective theory to practice
Transactional Leadership is an example of autocratic leadership in practice in education, where the principal motivates the staff through either punishment or reward.
Parents and students want choice when faced with under-performing local schools. But are charter schools contributing to re-segregation? And if so, is that good, bad, or both?
Current Foci for Educational Leadership:
Student Achievement in the Context of Social Justice
Current Foci for Educational Leadership:
Student Achievement in the Context of Social Justice
Current Foci for Educational Leadership:
Student Achievement in the Context of Social Justice
Democratic Leadership
The group decides what needs to change and who will lead that change
Kurt Lewin conducted research on this theory in 1942, during WWII, and emphasized the group must give its consent to proposed change
Democratic leadership research led to key educational leadership theories:
Transformational Leadership
Servant Leadership
Social Justice Leadership
Educational Leadership Theories
Transformational Leadership
Jean Brown (1993) said, "transformational leadership is concerned with values, beliefs, norms, goals, and feelings," (p. 11).
Transformational leadership involves the leader building leaders out of his/her followers.
In education, this leadership philosophy takes shape in School Leadership Teams, which are composed of school department chairpersons, administration, and other building leaders of the principal's choosing.
Educational Leadership Theories
Servant Leadership
Based in Biblical teachings, servant leadership focuses on leading as a servant to the followers.
In 1977, Greenleaf developed the theory while the country was in "a cultural crossfire, questioning truth, values, and authority," (Boyum, 2008).
Today in education, servant leaders give of their time, energy, and funds to support the students and teachers in achieving the goals set collectively for the school.
Educational Leadership Theories
Educational Leadership
Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow
Elizabeth Webb
Jillian Johnson
Anne Cannon
Current Foci for Educational Leadership:
Student Achievement in the Context of Social Justice
Work together with school and community leaders to address issues of inclusion and integration for all students, recognizing that by doing so both communities and schools can attain better outcomes for students.
Influential and Persistent Controversies

Influential and Persistent Controversies
Providing effective instruction for linguistically and culturally diverse students
Influential and Persistent Controversies
Many
immigrant
families are
less willing
to let go of
cultural and
linguistic identity
. Bilingualism and
biliteracy
are seen as
assets
. How does one foster this with mostly mono-lingual,
American

teachers
?
After the Brown versus Board of Education and the passage of the Civil Rights Act, schools were desegregated, often by busing. Today, schools have re-segregated by race and class. Truly diverse schools are rare, but increasing in number.

Work toward inclusion/integration for all students across all student differences: race, gender, social class, ability, gender, language and religion.
Make increased student learning and achievement the primary goal; without the ability to read and write well, students possibilities for the future are radically diminished.
Become an expert on the full array of student differences and how they intersect with one another; become an advocate for inclusion and integration of all students all the time.
References
(Influential Controversies and Current Foci)
Books, S., & Ndlalane, T. (2011). What the U.S. could learn from South Africa about education and social justice.
Educational Foundations, 25(1-2
),

83-102.

Capper, C. A., & Young, M.D. (2014) Ironies and limitations of educational leadership for social justice: A call to social justice educators.
Theory into

Practice, 53:2
, 158-164. doi: 10.1080/00405841.2014.885814

Carriuolo, N. E. (2004). 50 Years after Brown v. the Board of Education: An interview with Cheryl Brown Henderson.
Journal of Developmental Education,

27(3)
, 20-22.

de la Luz Reyes, M. (2012). Spontaneous biliteracy: Examining Latino students’ untapped potential.
Theory into Practice, 51(4)
, 248-255.

Gonzalez, J. (2007). The ordinary-ness of institutional racism: The effect of history and law in the segregation and integration of Latinas/os in schools.


American Educational History Journal, 34(2)
, 331-345.

Hornberger, N. H., & Link, H. (2012). Translanguaging in today’s classrooms: A biliteracy lens.
Theory into Practice, 51(4)
, 239-247.

McAndrews, L. (2009). “Not the bus, but us”: George W. Bush and school desegregation.
Educational Foundations, 23(1-2)
, 67-82.

Parris, G. P., Owens, D., Johnson, T., Grbevski, S., &Holbert-Quince, J. (2010). Addressing the career development needs of high-achieving African

American high school students: Implications for counselors.
Journal for the Education of the Gifted,33(3)
, 417-436.

Smith, G. (2004). Desegregation and resegregation after “Brown”: Implications for multicultural teacher education.
Multicultural Perspectives, 6(4)
,

26-32.

Toglia, T. V. (2013). Gender equity issues in CTE and STEM education: Economic and social implications.
Tech Directions, 72(7)
, 14-17.

Tyack, D., & Cuban, L. (1995).
Tinkering toward utopia: A century of public school reform
. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Wilson, T. S. (2010). Civic fragmentation or voluntary association? Habermas, Fraser, and charter school segregation.
Educational Theory, 60(6
), 643-664.


References
(Educational Leadership Theories)
Educational Leadership Theories
Social Justice Leadership
Sprung from pervasive homophobia, racism, sexism, and classism among education administrators, social justice leadership emerged through calls for reform in the education programs for school administrators (Dentith, A. & Peterlin, B., 2011).
Complex social issues manifest themselves in schools every day, and leaders in that school must "recognize the potential of education as a site for the fulfillment of social justice," (Dentith, A. & Peterlin,B., 2011, p. 53).

National Trend: Leadership and Online Learning
National Trend: Leadership and Technology in School
Great controversy and unease exists over the ubiquitous use of personal handeld devices, computers/tablets, and the Internet in schools.
Leaders that are baby boomers are faced with millennials and digital natives in their schools who are eager to have learning at their fingertips in the classroom. Since there is such a discrepancy among generations over the use of technology in school Baker, Lust and Neuhauser (2012) suggest that educational leaders must find a way for both groups to come together on policies for electronic devices in the classroom and school.
There is a worldwide trend to move toward a virtual or blended learning environment.
The servant leadership model can shepherd students through their online learning experience by helping them build a virtual community of support.
The social justice leadership model can create more equitable access to online learning for all students.
“Any e-learner—regardless of his/her economic or cultural background—should have the civic right to gain access to a good quality online learning community and to be engaged in a process of lifelong learning,” (van de Bunt-Kokhuis, 2012, p. 8).

References
(National Trends)

Baker, W. M., Lusk, E. J., Neuhauser, K. L. (2012). On the use of cell phones and other electronic devices in the

classroom: Evidence from a survey of faculty and students.
Journal of Education For Business, 87
(5),

275-289. doi: 10.1080/08832323.2011.622814

van de Bunt-Kokuis, S. (2012). Servant leadership the online way! E-learning where community building is key.

European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 1
, 1-10.

Walling, D. R. (2012) Tech-Savvy teaching and learning series number 1: The tech-savvy triangle.
TechTrends,

56
(4), 42-46. doi: 10.1007/s11528-012-0586-0
Some issues for education leaders to consider are equal access to computing, safety (many facets), privacy, rules, consulting parents, funding, existing and ever changing policies and staff development.
"Researchers Mitzuko Ito and colleagues in a 2008 report put it this way: Our values and norms in education, literacy, and public participation are being challenged by a shifting landscape of media and communications in which youth are central actor" (Walling, 2012, p. 42)
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