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Physical Changes

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marlin mcdaniel

on 28 April 2010

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Transcript of Physical Changes

Physical Changes of Aging Integumentary System Musculoskeletal System Circulatory System Respiratory System Nervous System Digestive System Urinary System Endocrine System Reproductive System Aging causes many physical changes in all body systems.
It's essential that all health care workers foresee and provide methods for  dealing with these changes. 
Patience, Tolerance, and Empathy are crucial Physical changes Many body functions decrease causing dryness, hair loss, coldness, less sweat, less oils, irritation or itching, and the skin becomes more difficult to heal.
Senile Lentigines: a.k.a liver spots are dark yellow or brown colored spots that occur on the body.
Wrinkles appear when fatty tissues diminish.
Nails become brittle, tough, thick and hard to manage.

Exercise to keep bones and joints flexible.
Maintain a calcium, protein, and vitamin rich diet to keep bones healthy.                           
Use slip-resistant shoes, hand rails, and other means of support to               prevent accidental falls.
Extreme excise that can be tiring
Garters (elastic bands used to hold up a stocking, sock, or shirt sleeve) or tight straps around legs
High amounts of sodium if diabetic

Decreased production of digestive juices and enzymes
Muscle action becomes slower
Decrease of liver function
Flatulence and constipation become common

Loss of muscle tone, volume, and strength.
Height decreases in the elderly when vertebrae become compressed over time.
Harder to perform small tasks with fingers.
Falling and breaking hips is much more common in the elderly due to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis- a condition in which calcium and other minerals are lost from the bones, causing them to become brittle and more likely to fracture or break.
Arthritis- inflammation of the joints which causes them to become stiff, less flexible, and painful. Changes A more rigid rib cage
The alveoli and Bronchioles lose elasticity
Larynx becomes weaker causing higher-pitched voice
Respiratory muscles lack strength Difficulties Emphysema- Lack of elasticity of alveoli
Bronchitis- Inflammation of bronchioles
Dyspnea- Difficulty breathing How to Accommodate Rest during heavy activities to prevent dyspnea
Use a semi-Fowler's position while sleeping
Avoid smoke-filled areas
Clear lungs by coughing out mucus
Portable oxygen units may be helpful for those with chronic conditions
Prevention Conditions Effects What Happens To It? The heart has to work harder to push blood through the arteries
The cardiac production declines
Blood vessels shrink and their ability to be elastic decrease
Reduction of blood circulating to the brain and other organs
Blood pressure may change What Are The Symptoms? When relaxed, there is no noticeable symptoms
Symptoms are felt whenever the body needs more oxygen and nutrients then usual; like when stressed, sick, excited, or exercising
What the person will feel is dizziness, numbness in certain body parts, and their heart rate at a much higher speed What Is Necessary? Rest throughout the day
Acceptable exercise for patient is helpful to avoid blood clots or thrombus
Support stockings
Range-Of-Motion exercise to facilitate circulation if restricted in bed
Should follow diet and exercise plan doctor appointed
What Should Be Avoided? Changes Conditions Preventative Methods Poor circulation
Bladder's ability to hold urine decreases Nocturia - urination at night occurs
Incontinence- the inability to control urination Fluids should be taken prior to the evening.
Frequent bathroom breaks.
Easy to remove clothing.
Absorbant pads. Females Males Inflammations and Vaginal Infections become common.
A prolapsed uterus is an illness in which there is a weakness in its supporting tissues which causes the uterus to sag down. There is a slower production sperm because of low levels of testosterone.
Stimulation of the penis is slower
Ejaculation may take longer
Testes become smaller and less firm. Etc. Most of the eldery are still sexually active.
Sexual desire does not decrease with age.
Sex decreases arthritis.
Sex improves muscle tone, circulation, and hormone levels Effects There is an overproduction or under-production of crucial hormones
Immune systems are depressed
Metabolic rate decreases How to Manage Exercise
Eating a healthy diet
Recieving adequate rest Fun Facts Skin is the largest organ in the body.
Makes up about 12-15% of body weight.
Covers a surface area of 1-2 meters. Changes Decreased blood flow to the brain interferes with thinking, reacting, interpreting, and remembering
Senses of taste, smell, vision, and hearing diminish
More susceptible to injury due to decreased nerve function Conditions Cataracts- when the normally transparent lens of the eye becomes cloudy or opaque
Glaucoma: a condition in which the intraocular pressure of the eye increases and interferes with vision Helpful Methods a hearing aid may help with some hearing problems, but will not eliminate the problem in cases of severe nerve damage
foods with a variety of tastes and textures may help stimulate appetite How to Compensate Good oral hygiene
Repair or replacement of damaged teeth
Eating in a relaxed atmosphere
Avoiding fatty foods
Eating foods with a higher protein and fiber content
Increasing fluid intake Effects of Aging Prevention Brushing the hair is very healthy. It stimulates circulation and also increases the production of body oils.
Proper diet, exercise, good hygiene, and less sun exposure can help slow physical changes. Increased sensitivity to temperature.
Hypothermia- core or eternal body temperature less than 95 degrees Fahrenheit.
To help prevent, use blankets, socks, sweaters or an extra layer of clothing.
DO NOT use hot water bottles or heating pads!
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