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Independent Choice Project

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Hayley Mortensen

on 21 March 2015

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Transcript of Independent Choice Project

Sport & Exercise Psychology
Institute for Aerobics Research, Dallas, Tex
Participants:
10,224 men and 3,120 women who have been given a preventive medical examination.
Method:
Physical Fitness was measured by a maximal treadmill exercise test. The average follow up test was 8 years.
Findings:
240 deaths in men and 43 in women. Men: Mortality rates declined across physical fitness from 64.0 10,000 per person in the least fit and 18.6 per 10,000 in most fit. Women: 39.5 per 10,000 person to 8.5 per 10,000 persons.
Conclusion:
The mortality rate was lower in high fitness categories. Delay in mortality was due to lowered risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer.
Level 2
Evaluate ways that sports and exercise help the mind?

Enhance blood supply to the brain
Enhance brain connections
maintains cognitive functions as aging occurs
Better reasoning, vocabulary skills, memory and reaction time.
Mood enhancement
Level 1
What is the benefit of sports to youth and adults?

Promotion of Health
Cure of Disease
Increase in Lifespan
Team Work
Problem Solving
Level 3
L. Chaddock et al. (2011)
Participants:
9 and 10 year old children recruited from Est-central Illinois.
Method:
Children were given multiple tests to determine which physical group they fit into, higher or lower fit. Tests included aerobic fitness, IQ, handedness questionnaire, MRI, Flanker test. 14 higher-fit (7 boys, 7 girls) and 18 lower-fit ( boys, 10 girls). Follow up testing on average was one year. Completed same tests.
Findings:
After the year scores for each raised in both lower and higher fit groups. Lower-fit groups did not reach high-fit groups. Higher-fit group out performed after one year than the lower-fit group.
Conclusion:
Higher-fit individuals have a superior capability to flexibly control processes and change their process of completing a task to meet the task at hand. The study was to determine if baseline aerobic fitness and brain volume measurements in children can predict cognitive levels in the future. Having higher-fit people in a work place that can alter their process to complete a task is helpful in completing a job.
Department of Economics and Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL
Participants:
High School Girls that participate in sports.
Method:
Association between girls participation and physical activity, weight, body mass, and body composition in the 1970's when Title IX was forming.
Findings:
Girls: Increase in physical activity and improvement in body weight and body mass. Boys: decline in physical activity and an increase in weight and body mass during this time.
Conclusion:
Title IX and increase in athletic opportunities in females had a positive effect on health of adolescent girls.
Work Cited
Level 1
"Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 05 May 2014.

Vina, J., F. Sanchis-Gomar, V. Martinez-Bello, and MC Gomez-Cabrera. "Abstract." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 03 Mar. 0006. Web. 05 May 2014.

"Sport Psychology Off the Field." Http://www.apa.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 May 2014.

Level 2
http://kch.illinois.edu/research/labs/neurocognitive-kinesiology/files/Articles/Chaddock_2012_ChildhoodAerobicFitnessPredicts.pdf

"Working Out Builds the Mind's Muscles." Http://www.apa.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 May 2014.

"The Exercise Effect." Http://www.apa.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 May 2014.

Level 3
"Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 05 May 2014.

"Athletics Scores Big Points for Women's Well-being." Http://www.apa.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 May 2014.

www.icsspe.org/sites/default/files/Girls.pdf
Benefit of bringing more girls into sports and exercise through the help of Title IX.

Title IX: 1972 law mandating equal opportunities to participate in activity programs that receive federal funding. Resulted in explosion of women's sports and decreased teenage pregnancy rates and an increase in girls grades.
Explosion of women's sports
Decrease in pregnancy rates
Increase in women college acceptance rate
Increase in women labor force
Lower risk of obesity as adults
Flanker Test
Computerized Indirect Calorimetry System
The game of golf is very important to me. The involvement of girls in the game of golf has grown since I have been involved. I have been involved with the Girls Golf program since 9 years ago. When I first became part of the program I was one of about 6 participants in my chapter. Since then the program has grown to about 90 participants in my chapter and some chapters have to turn participants away because they still do not have enough resources.
The importance for girls playing and participating in sports is very important and is shown in the study on the last slide.
Even though the involvement of girls in sports has grown, it is still not the same. Throughout history girls have been taught to be a certain way, but now as time goes on it is changing. Through sports girls can learn how to be themselves and succeed in life. A book that I can relate to the aspect that sports help girls succeed is Nice Girls Still Don't Get the Corner Office. By reading the book it gives advice on how to succeed. This is what girls need in life to succeed.
Ways to help include:
Finding a mentor
Parent staying involved
Bringing the opportunities to them. A lot of girls may not know what is available to them because of resources. By bringing it to the girls they can be aware of what they can do.

Why athletes see sports psychologist?
It is typical for athletes to loose focus in competition, have trouble communicating with teammates, or controlling their temper. Seeing a sports psychologist can help athletes learn to control their behavior and improve themselves and their ability to participate in sports.


Sports psychologists can help athletes to:
Enhance performance: Help athletes control their temper on and off the field/court by using the mental strategies visualization and self-talk.
Cope with pressure: Pressure from coaches, parents and teammates can build on an athlete and force their ability to decline.
Recover from injuries: Staying in line with physical therapy and dealing with the pain of not playing, especially in season.
Enjoy the game: Sometimes athletes get so caught up in winning and scoring, they forget it is a game to enjoy, promoting self-esteem.
Communicating with teammates or coaches: Being able to know how and when to talk to a coach or teammate about needing help or needing a break.



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