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Transcript of Animation
Computer Generated Imagery (CGI)
By Paige and Harry.
CGI is the creation of computer graphics to create images within art, printed media, video games, commercials, videosm, televison programmes, films and simulators.
The visual scenes can vary between static or dymanic and can also be 2D although the term CGI is refrred to as being 3D for creating scenes or creating special effects in film and television, this can also be created by home users on devices such as windows movie make and imovie.
CGI first started off in 1968 when a group of Russian mathematicians and physicists lead by N.Konstantinov created a mathematical model of a moving cat across a screen. A program was made for a specific type of computer which was called BESM-4. The BESM-4 computer printed hundreds of frames that could be converted into usable film material therefore prducing the first CGI animation in 1968.
Just a few years after moving a cat across the screen the 2D animator Peter Foldes created the first CGI animated short film drawn on a data tablet. Foldes also used the world’s first key frame animation software, which was invented by Nestor Burtnyk and Marceli Wein.
The first 3D computer-generated imagery was created in the film Futureworld in 1976. In a scene the hand and face of the actor was enhanced with the use CGI. Futureworld used 2D digital compositing to materialize characters over the background
This technique works by drawing or painting objects onto a clear piece of plastic and then taking a picture of the image after each frame has been slightly edited and then finally combine all the cels to be photographed, using a special film motion picture camera. Cel animation allows animators to repeat certain frames, so that they don't need to draw each individual frame over and over because it will take too long.
This technique was used in the 20th Century and was soon replaced by better techniques once computer animation was brought into the animated world in 1990,this makes the media products better and quicker to create. This was invented by Earl Hurd in 1914. Now cel animation is drawn onto a tablet and then it is transferred to the editors on computers to produce a final animation piece.
In the 19th century, the phenakistoscope (1832), zoetrope (1834) and praxinoscope (1877), and the flip book, were the start of animation. It produced an illusion of movement from multiple drawings, this is better known as the persistnace of vision where your eye holds onto the still image and creates the illusion that it moves.
Animation was made possible by a device called a zoetrope. The zoetrope was a spinning cylinder with open slits that allows you to see still images in a certain sequence. When viewing a zoetrope at a particular angle you could see images that appeared to be moving. films soon followed like "Gertie the Dinosaur" and "Felix the Cat," both released around 1920.The invention of motion pictures in 1889, Cohl combined all of the shots together, the drawings appeared to be moving on the film, "Fantasmagorie,"
Max Fleischer had next invented a new technique called the rotoscope, which allowed animators to trace over live action film frame by frame onto an animation cel. He created the first sound cartoon, "Song Car Tunes" in 1924. Walt and Disney and improved the rotoscope technique and opened their Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio in 1923.They created the first cartoon with a soundtrack titled "Steam Boat Willy," which also introduced Mickey Mouse to the world in 1928.In 1940, Warner Brothers Studios released "A Wild Hare," which had the animated characters: the wisecracking rabbit, Bugs Bunny
Disney studio's first full-length animated feature movie “Snow White and the Seven Dwarves." was an animated cartoon movie which earnt £5 million for Disney and was the beginning of Disney.
In the 19th century, the phenakistoscope (1832), zoetrope (1834) and praxinoscope (1877), and the flip book, were the start of animation.
Film- Snow white and the seven dwarfs.
Music- video- Arctic Monkeys do i wanna know?
tv.- Peppa pig
computer game-Ed, Edd n Eddy: The Mis-Edventures.
companies that used
origin n examples - clay motion
Companies that used Claymation.
Clay-animated films first started in the United States from 1908, when Edison Manufacturing released a trick film called The Sculptor's Welsh Rarebit Dream.
In 1921, clay animation was used in a film called "Modeling", an Out of the Inkwell film from the newly formed Fleischer Brothers studio. "Modeling" is one of the few known shorts using clay that was released during the 1920s. "Modeling" included animated clay in eight shots, a novel integration of the technique into an existing cartoon series and one of the rare uses of clay animation in a theatrical short from the 1920s.
Max Fleischer was an Polish Jewish American animator, inventor, film director and producer. Fleischer was a pioneer in the development of the animated cartoon and served as the head of Fleischer Studios.
Pioneering the clay-painting technique was Vinton animator Joan Gratz, first in her Oscar-nominated film 'The Creation' (1980), and then in her Oscar-winning Mona Lisa Descending a Staircase, filmed in 1992
Years on from the creation of claymation and it still gets used as a great form of animation, not just in televison or film but for games and also advertising. For example computer games have been producing clay animation, including The Neverhood, Clay Fighter, Platypus, Clay Moon (iPhone app), and Primal Rage. Television commercials have also taken clay animation to publics TV screens, such as the Chevron Cars ads, produced by Aardman Studios. Besides commercials, clay animation has also been popularized in recent years by children's shows such as Bob the Builder and The Koala Brothers, as well as adult-oriented shows on Cartoon Network's Adult Swim lineup, including Robot Chicken (which uses clay animation and action figures as stop-motion puppets in conjunction) and Moral Orel.
Film- Flushed Away (CGI replication of clay animation)
tv- Wallice and Gromit
Computer game- Magic and Mayhem
Advert- Chevron cras ads.
Examples: Film - Monsters Inc.
Music video - Elijah Black - Drive-bye
TV - Playhouse Disney block
Advert - The Andrex advert - It's the little things
Computer game - GTA
Walt Disney- Snow white, seven dwarfs, mickey mouse.
Tatsunoko Production company-Gatchman.
20th Century fox television-The Simpsons.
Nippon Television network(NTV)-Spirited away.
Nicktoons Production- Sponge Bob sqaure pants.
Motion Capture is the recording of movement of an object or people. It is used in wide range of different areas such as military, entertainment, sports, medical applications and for validation of computer vision and robotics
In motion capture, movements of one or more actors are taken at alot of times per second. On the other hand early techniques used images from multiple cameras around the human or object to calculate 3D positions, often the purpose of motion capture is to record only the movements of the actor, not his or her visual appearance.
This animation data is mapped to a 3D model so that the model performs the same actions as the actor, this process may be compared to the early technique of rotoscoping.
For example the Ralph Bakshi made in 1978, The Lord of the Rings and 1981 American Pop animated films where the movement of an actor was filmed, then the film used this as a guide for the frame-by-frame motion of a hand-drawn animated character.
Warner Bro's- Pee- Wee's big Adventure.
Aardman Animations-Wallace and Gromit.
British Broadcasting Corporation -The miracle maker
Companies within motion capture
Strengths and Weaknesses- Cel Animation.
The Strengths for producing a Cel animation is that It looks cleaner and it usually has a more highly detailed look creating more of a classic feel. This makes it easier for the audience look into the animation and relate to it.
However, the Weaknesses of using Cel animation is that it is Time consuming due to huge amount of frames to be captured but the drawing and movement also take some time to create, making it more expensive to create.
Examples- The Simpsons is a good example of the quality of aesthetics within cel animiation because it has cleverly created characters which the audience can relate to as in The Simpsons the storyline is based upon real family situation but have been exaggerated to create comedy. They are cleanly designed it to create a good animation which now still exists but has been inproved by new techniques.
Another example is Snow white and the seven dwarfs as the narrative to the animation is intersting and the events that occur draws the audience in, making them intrigued to watch the full film. Also, the colours and the apperance of the animation contain primary washed out colours to make the film seem innocent as it is supposidly produced for a younger audience.
Rainmaker motion Capture - Dead Rising 2 (2010-Video Game)
Centroid Morion capture - 300: Rise of an Empire (2014)
Motion Capture Europe - Poject BW (1998)
Electronic Arts (EA) World Wide Motion Capture Studio - Mass Effect 2 (2010-Video Game)
House of Moves Motion Capture Studios - Titanic (1997)
Companies In CGI
Universal CGI - The polar express (2004)
Pixar - Toy story (1995)
Dreamworks - Shrek (2001)
Walt Disney- Monsters Inc (2001)
Fox 2000 Pictures- Alvin and the Chipmunks (2009)
Strengths and Weaknesses of Claymation.
The Strengths of using Claymation is that you can create cool effects, animate and inanimate objects, made to scale, which are also easy to make and can represent a person or an object.
The Weaknesses are that they are Difficult to get right speed and the consistent picture quality is hard to maintain. You have to create audio seperately, making ittime consuming.The look of the clay models isn't that appealing and small movement isn't easy and it requires maintenance to dry clay, making this technique costly.
Examples- 'Return to Oz' is a good example of Claymation because the apperance of the animtaed film has remarkably been structured so that the characters and the background look more appealing and interesting to watch for the audience. Also, The storyline to this aniamtion is happy and cheerful with a twist to surprise the audience when a dark scene that appears when the witch is introduced.
Another excellent example is 'Wallace and Gromit' as the animation has a storyline which the audience can relate to real life scenarios used in the storyline. Although, the real life events are made comic to entertain the audience. The animation uses eye catching colours such as Wallace's green sweater to grab the audiences attention and keep their eyes watching.
Strengths and weaknesses of CGI
The Strengths are, that they are More rapid and it reduces the costs of keyframe-based animation. The amount of animation data that can be produced in a small frame of time is a huge amount compare to other animation techniques.
The Weaknesses of this is that You have to have specific software and programme to be able to process the data and the cost of it can be expensive. Also, is is time consuming because you have to reshoot a whole scene not just certain parts that need reshooting.
'Alice in Wonderland' is a good example of motion capture because it has cleverly been put together to form a good animation. The storyline for this film has several twists to it and constanlty surprises the audience. The quirky characters and the bright colourful scenes make the film seem exciting and a good film to watch.
'Hansel and Gretel' is another great motion capture film because it is one of many fairy tale children stories with a twist of a new storyline which has been inproved. The motion capture is used to create abnormal creatures which Hansel and Gretel fight against to protect one another. The apperance of the film is shown to be dark and gloomy with colours such as sci-fi greys and blues as well as the black and dark red.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Motion capture.
The Strengths are that in the CGI programme can be written in any language, making it more accessable for everyone. It is easy to use. Also, the animation is a lot more detailed and has a better picture than other animation techniques.
The weaknesses are, that they are slow as they need to start a new process for each HTTP request and the database is constantly being opened which costs money, making this technique very costly to use.
'Bee Movie' is a good example of CGI because it clearly shows the intelligence of the technique and creates an excellent picture for the animated film. The colour yellow in the film shows that it is going to be a film full of happiness and excitement, making the audience want to watch it. Also, the storyline for the film is built up of human and insect characters such as bee's but the bee's have human characteristics, making the film more interesting for younger children.
'Barnyard' is another great example as this also contains human characters and animals with human characteristics making the storyline more interesting than just having humans or animals. Furthermore, the apperance of this animation shows bright colours and happy animals to show the audience that this film is fun and exciting.
Walt Disney was found in 1923, and then they signed a contract with M.J Wrinkler to produce some Alice comedies
In 1928, the invention of 'Mickey Mouse' was created and 'Steamboat Willie' (the first synchronized sound cartoon) was also created.
In 1937 'Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs' was released which was Walt Disney's first animated film.
Between 2010 and 2014 several popular films were published
Film: Planet of the apes
Video Game: Bioshock