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Transcript of Pragmatism
Born: September 10, 1839, Cambridge
Died: April 19, 1914
Spouse: Juliette Peirce
Parents: Benjamin Peirce
Education: Harvard College, Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University
Writings: Philosophical Writings of Peirce, Pragmatism as a principle and method of right thinking, Chance, love, and logic, Peirce on signs, Reasoning and the logic of things, Reasoning and the logic of things, Writings of Charles S. Peirce: A Chronological Edition, Volumes 1-8
An approach that assesses the truth of meaning of theories or beliefs in terms of the success of their practical application.
It is inherently relativistic, rejecting the notion of absolute right and wrong, good and evil, truth and error. Pragmatism ultimately defines truth as that which is useful, meaningful, helpful. Ideas that don't seem workable or relevant are rejected as false.
Pragmatism is an attitude, a method, and
a philosophy that uses the practical consequences
of ideas and beliefs as a standard for determining
their value and truth.
What is Pragmatism
How does the pragmatic meaning of truth affect our daily lives?
Is the pragmatic meaning of truth right or wrong?
How do we know what's right or wrong?
Open Ended Question
Are We Innately Good or Evil
Charles Sanders Peirce
Born: January 11, 1842, Astor House
Died: August 26, 1910, Chocorua
Parents: Henry James Sr.
Education: Harvard University, Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Siblings: Henry James, Alice James
Writings: The Varieties of Religious Experience, Principles of Psychology, A pluralistic universe, Essays in Radical Empiricism, The meaning of truth, Cyberdance, The correspondence of William James, The writings of William James, Pragmatism,
Born: October 20, 1859, Burlington
Died: June 1, 1952, New York City
Spouse: Alice Chipman (m. 1886)
Education: University of Vermont (1879), Johns Hopkins University, University of Chicago
Children: Gordon Dewey, Frederick Archibald Dewey, Evelyn Dewey, Morris Dewey, Lucy Alice Dewey, Jane Mary Dewey
Who influenced William James
Who Influenced James Dewey
Who Influenced Charles-Sanders Pierce
Pragmatist Theories of Charles-Sanders Pierce
Pragmatist Theories of John Dewey
Pragmatist Theories of William James
Main Tenets Of Charles-Sanders Pierce
Main Tenets of John Dewey
Main Tenets of William James
“the attitude of looking away from first things, principles, ‘categories,’supposed necessities; and of looking towards last things, fruits, consequences, facts.”2
mind being a single being
Pragmatism according to James talks of mind being a single being. If something is compared with the idea, then the mind isn’t absolute. An absolute mind cannot be compared to or contrasted.
By Jason M. & Danieltta P.
Quotes of James
Quotes from Dewey
Quotes from Peirce
Who Are We?
What gives meaning and purpose to life?
Are We Matter, Spirit, or Both?
What are the components of Consciousness?
What is Identity
Are We Free, Predetermined, or Predestined?
In the pragmatic view we are neither good nor evil. We are useful. Well if we are useful, then we're good but if you are useless then you're bad. We are born neutral and grow into our useful or uselessness.
To a pragmatist human nature will be what you believe to be useful to your survival. If what we do is what helps us survive then it is good and part of our nature. If we know something that has no use to us then that 'thing' is false
Charles Darwin’s transmutation theory,
Friedrich von Schiller
Friedrich Albert Lange
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Peirce was the first person to start Pragmatism so he wasn't influenced by manyby Charles Sanders- Peirce, Charles Darwin, Jane Addams, and his own children
Charles Sanders- Peirce
His own children
Was Peirce's Student
Problems could be solved if one gave perfect attention to the practical consequences
Pragmatism emphasizes that words come from our actions
What are the components of consciousness
“The constituents of the Self may be divided into two classes, those which make up respectively—a) the material self b) the social self c) the spiritual self d) the pure Ego.” (9) The material self has to do with what we like and strive for on Earth, such as clothes. The social self is how much people we talk to and how much people notice us. Spiritual self includes the inner feelings of someone. The pure ego is who we strive to be and who we are. He also believes that what we call our spiritual self is really what we do when no one is looking.-James
Mutual awareness, one can be conscious to one’s own innocence. Self-consciousness is not due to failure to keep in mind so it forms a practical attitude. Consciousness is the state of being aware and “...there is [neither discrimination nor] implication as to contents, as to what there is awareness of...” (7) It explains that though consciousness is the state of being aware, what we are aware of is unknown.-Dewey
“...any emotion is a predication concerning some object, and the chief difference between this and an objective intellectual judgment is that while the latter is relative to human nature or to mind in general, the former is relative to the particular circumstances and disposition of a particular man at a particular time. “(8) meaning that we get our emotions are an assumption of what we are expressing that emotion to and it differs from objective intellectual judgment because one it differs of the person habit to perform differently at times. Peirce asks if we have an intuitive self-consciousness. Consciousness is the knowledge of other things whereas self-consciousness is the knowledge of us.- Peirce
truth and life basically has to do with experience
experience is an affair of a person with its environment
the universe is unfinished and doubtful
“Each mind must have a certain minimum of selfishness in the shape of instincts of bodily self-seeking in order to exist.” (10) this shows that to exist you must have selfish needs that will be fulfilled. This will help with the seeking of your needs.
Dewey had a conception of inquiry. It said inquiry begins with a problem; we are involved in ‘an uncertain situation’. And inquiry aims for ‘the controlled transformation of a uncontrolled or uncertain situation into one that is so determinate in its fraction distinctions and relations as to convert the elements of the original situation into a unified whole.’
‘the ideas of truth and falsehood, in their full development, appertain exclusively to the scientific (in a later revision he altered this to ‘experiential’) method of settling opinion’. This reflects a law which is evident from scientific experience: when different people use different methods to identify, for example, the velocity of light, we find that all tend to arrive at the same result:
Though different minds with the most antagonistic views, they will result in the same conclusion
Theories of Truth
Peirce- Describes truth as means to understanding a concept that was important for the method of science
James- There can be different kinds of truths as long as its useful
Dewey- An opinion accepted widely among individuals that has a real purpose or 'object'
"...pragmatism as a method for attaining clearness in our ideas and pragmatism as a theory of truth or falsity of those ideas."
James believed in two meanings of pragmatism. The first states pragmatism attains clarity in what we search for and the second is the trues and false of pragmatism based on its use
"There is doubtless some sense in saying that every consciousness act has an incentive or motive"
"Motive-the outcome of the attempt of men to influence human action, first that of others, then of a man to influence his own behavior"-passage
We change ourselves because of something. We all have a motive when it comes down to how to change human nature