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THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE

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by

Daniel Santella

on 8 October 2015

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Transcript of THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE

THEORY OF
KNOWLEDGE
INTRODUCTION

HOW DO WE
KNOW WHAT WE KNOW?

How do we know that we love our family? How do we know we should love our family? How do we know that we do not live in the Matrix? How do we know when school starts? How do we know we should work hard in school? How do we know the universe is infinite? How do we know the sky is
blue
? How do we know the Japanese invaded Hong Kong during World War II? How do we know what dumplings taste like? How do we know what clothes we like? How do we know God exists? How do we know a good teacher from a bad one? How do we know the earth goes around the sun? How do we know what sand feels like? How do we know who is good looking? How do we know the maximum velocity of an object? HOW do we know my sister is a nerd? How do we know which type of government is best?
ANSWERS OFTEN INCLUDE
I SAW IT. I HAD A FEELING. I WAS TOLD. I READ IT. I REMEMBERED IT. I TOUCHED IT. I LOGICALLY FIGURED IT OUT. I DON'T KNOW. I JUST KNOW! I LEARNED THROUGH MY EXPERIENCES. I SAW IT ON TV. MY MOM SAID. MY TEACHER TOLD ME. I SAW IT ON YOUTUBE. I DID EXPERIMENTS. I MEASURED IT...
REASON
We use reason to create NEW knowledge!
SENSE PERCEPTION
EMOTION
LANGUAGE
Language is the SYMBOLIC communication of meaning mostly exclusive to human beings.
If you had to come up with 4-6 words to describe/categorize these answers, what would they be?
"WAYS OF KNOWING"
EMORY
PERCEPTI
N
IMAGI
ATION
L
NGUAGE
EM
TION
AITH
REA
TUITION
ON
HOW DO WE KNOW ANYTHING?
WHAT YOU TASTE!
WHAT YOU FEEL THROUGH TOUCH!
WHAT YOU SMELL!
WHAT YOU HEAR!
WHAT YOU SEE!
HOW IMPORTANT
ARE OUR SENSES IN CONSTRUCTING KNOWLEDGE?
BLIND WALK
SENSES AS PROTECTION
SENSES AS THE BASIS FOR ALL KNOWLEDGE
WHEN DO WE NEED
TO BE CAUTIOUS WITH TRUSTING OUR SENSES?
AND HOW YOUR MIND INTERPRETS IT
WHAT SENSE WOULD YOU GIVE UP IF YOU HAD TO GIVE ONE UP?
WHICH SENSE WOULD YOU KEEP IF YOU COULD ONLY KEEP ONE?
Choose a partner and label one person A and one person B.
The Bs go out into the hallway and put on the blindfolds.
The As rearrange the space so that there are many safe objects to interact with, but the Bs cannot anticipate where the objects will be placed.
Each A gets his or her partner and brings them back into the room.
As help Bs explore the space carefully for two minutes.
Switch roles.
Reflect.
"I'LL BELIEVE IT WHEN I SEE IT"
WHAT DO THESE EXAMPLES TEACH US ABOUT OUR SENSES?
YOUR ASSIGNMENT
OUR SENSES ARE HUMAN
Research some animal senses that are better or different than our own. How other species know/interact with the world around them. Report back to the class two specific examples.
Discuss
Have you ever been encouraged not to become emotional in your response to subject matter so
that you would know it more truly - or the opposite?
Emotional Intelligence
Do you think that some people are more emotionally "knowledgeable" than others? Look around your class. Think of your friends and family. What would make you nominate one or two people in your life as "most knowledgeable" emotionally?
WHEN? Why do you think you were requested to suppress or embrace your emotions in these cases?
Empathy
http://greatergood.berkeley.edu/ei_quiz/
http://glennrowe.net/baroncohen/empathyquotient/empathyquotient.aspx
CAN EMPATHY SAVE THE WORLD????? How would you teach Empathy?
HW: Read pages 171-173 of the Emotion chapter (Oxford TOK Emotion). In your TOK Journal: When should we be wary of the use of emotion in the justification of an argument? Can you think of any time in your life where someone has tried to convince you using only emotion? How did you respond? Explain.
a natural instinctive state of mind deriving from one's circumstances, mood, or relationships with others.
EMOTION
Fear Empathy Compassion Disgust Happiness Sadness Anger Love Jealousy Excitement Shame Surprise Joy Amusement Guilt Envy Resentment Pain Hate Frustration Anxiety Pity Lust Passion
Apathy Boredom Enthusiasm Contentment Sorrow Cynicism
FALLACIOUS REASONING
We often get our reasoning messed up!
We tend to make the same kind of mistakes over and over.
and over and over...
the power of the mind to think, understand, and form judgments by a process of LOGIC.
Logic: rule based system that infers knowledge based on true premises that lead to a valid conclusion
GENERAL
SPECIFIC
GENERAL
SPECIFIC
DEDUCTIVE REASONING
Premise:
All
food at the cafeteria is disgusting
Premise: My lunch came from the cafeteria
Conclusion:
My lunch
is disgusting
INDUCTIVE REASONING
PREMISE:
METAL A
EXPANDS WHEN HEATED
PREMISE:
METAL B
EXPANDS WHEN HEATED
PREMISE:
METAL C
EXPANDS WHEN HEATED
PREMISE:
METAL D
EXPANDS WHEN HEATED
...
CONCLUSION:
ALL
METALS EXPAND WHEN HEATED
VALIDITY AND TRUTH
TRUTH
: CONCERNED WITH WHAT IS THE CASE
VALIDITY
: WHEN CONCLUSIONS LOGICALLY FOLLOW FROM THE PREMISES
SYLLOGISMS
PREMISES combined to make an argument lead to a CONCLUSION
PREMISE: an assumption you take to be true
PREMISE: All Watchdogs bark at strangers
PREMISE: The dog did not bark at the thief
CONCLUSION:?
IF THE PREMISES ARE
TRUE
AND THE CONCLUSION
VALID
, YOU HAVE SOLID REASONING
PREMISE: ALL PANTHERS ARE PINK
PREMISE: MR SANTELLA IS A PANTHER
CONCLUSION: MR SANTELLA IS PINK
THE PREMISES ARE FALSE AND THE CONCLUSION IS FALSE, BUT THE REASONING IS VALID
STRENGTH: PROVIDES a HIGH LEVEL of CERTAINTY
WEAKNESS: GIVES US LIMITED INFORMATION
WEAKNESS: PROVIDES a LOWER LEVEL of CERTAINTY
STRENGTH: IS MORE INFORMATIVE
How many specific cases do you need to look at before your conclusion is strong?
Ad hominem reasoning: Accepting or dismissing an argument because you like or dislike the person making it is fallacious. An argument can be valid and true despite your feelings or assumptions about a person
Assignment
Create a Visual Explaining one of the "Deadly Fallacies" below. The Visual should include a description of the fallacy, and explanation of how the reasoning is fallacious, and at least two examples of people using the fallacy. One example can be hypothetical, but one should be a real life example. The product should be in color and include at least one picture, drawing, etc.
Ad Ignorantiam

SPECIAL PLEADING


False Analogy

CIRCULAR REASONING
Equivocation
LOADED QUESTIONS
False Dilemma

HASTY GENERALIZATIONS
STRAW MAN
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc

REASONING TEST
Take the Inductive Reasoning Test on the WOK page of the Weebly. See how well you do in completing the ten questions!
HW: Read pages 120 to 125 in the Reasoning Chapter to review premises and valid reasoning
Homework
Complete the Fallacious Reasoning Worksheet on the Weebly
HW REFLECTION and ACTIVITY and READING
To what extent and in what ways does the variety of languages create problems in communication? What problems does translation face? Would it be better for knowledge if everyone spoke the same language worldwide?
Symbolism uses an object, image, sound, word to stand for something else.
"ROCK" =

= ROCK
Discuss: What is the role of language in creating knowledge?
Simple, Right?
But words exist within our complex grammatical system and can be manipulated into different meanings
"He Rocks!"
"The system is rock solid"
Issues With Language
Language and Culture
Manipulation of Language
EUPHEMISM
and
EMOTION LADEN LANGUAGE
CONTROLLING LANGUAGE:
Gun Control
versus
Gun Rights
Pro-Choice
versus
Pro-Abortion
Pro-Life
versus
Anti-Choice
Terrorist
versus
Freedom Fighter
What are the implications of softening language? What about making it more emotionally laden?
Also, complete the slanted writing activity on page 144 of the Oxford book. Write an account of an event from two differing perspectives
Read pages 148 and 149 on Fallacies of Argument: Tactics of Language
Ambiguity
Denotation Versus Connotation
DENOTATION: Core meaning of a word
CONNOTATION: Overtones of meaning associated with the way a word or phrase is presented in context.
In groups of four, create a presentation and activity for one of the new WOKs. Be able to explain how the WOK is helpful in creating knowledge and how we should be cautious with its use.
Presentation and activity should be between 10 and 15 minutes.

Questions:
Which example of "different ways of being" do you find most interesting? Why?
What is the ethnosphere? Is it humanities great legacy?
How quickly are we losing languages?
Would the world be a better place if we all spoke the same language?
According to Davis, what is destroying the ethnosphere?
How can the ethnosphere be saved according to Davis?
Wade Davis is a Canadian anthropologist, ethnobotanist, author and photographer whose work has focused on worldwide indigenous cultures, especially in North and South America (from Wiki)
Davis argues: we tend to see one model of reality, but "there are other ways of thinking, other ways of being, other ways of orienting oneself to life on this earth".
Davis claims language is a flash of the human spirit.
Davis wants to give us a sense of what is being lost.
10 minutes
Name as many emotions as you can.
Categorize each of these emotions as "positive", negative", or "neutral"
Place each on the following chart. the more negative, the further right, the more positive, the further left...
Fear Empathy Compassion Disgust Happiness Sadness Anger Love Jealousy Excitement Shame Surprise Joy Amusement Guilt Envy Resentment Pain Hate Frustration Anxiety Pity Lust Passion Confusion
Apathy Boredom Enthusiasm Contentment Sorrow Cynicism Nostalgia
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
WEAK
STRONG
How would you rate each emotion in their helpfulness in creating knowledge?
Go to the back of the room and select two photographs that are the most emotional for you? Which emotions do you feel? What determined your emotions? Was the emotion helpful in creating knowledge?
Very Helpful
Somewhat Helpful
Neutral
Hurtful
Very Hurtful
Justify your answers
Our Senses are HUMAN and therefore LIMITED.
CRAZY ANIMAL SENSES
What is the role of technology in helping us overcome our limited sense perception?
Choose a simple word of your own and play with it as we do with "rock" to get the feel of how meaning can shift.
Attempt to stage a short dialogue, using only a single word such as "yes" or "no" or "tomorrow" or "difficult". See if you can create a meaningful exchange between people solely by shifting your intonation, for example, to question, to argue, to imply.
Summative Exam
Section A- Source analysis of texts and cartoon.
Q: "What is the message conveyed in source____?"
A: "The message conveyed in source ____ is that ____. I know this because_____"

Covers Criteria A and C
Section B- Extended Response Evaluating a WOK.
Evaluate- Examine the values and limitations of the WOK in the construction of Knowledge.

V
L
1. Define the WOK
2. Come up with a thesis: more limited or more valuable?
3. Look at values AND limitations with EXAMPLES (from class and your own) while supporting your thesis.
Definition
Make something like this for each of the WOKS as study guide
Covers Criteria A and C
Control of Language
Non-emotive version: Another person in the bar was injured by the man's glass.
Emotive version: An innocent bystander suffered facial injuries when the thug launched his glass across the bar.

Non-emotive version: The government will reduce interest rates.
Emotive version: The government will slash interest rates.

Non-emotive version: Mr Smith was attacked by Mr Jones for two minutes.
Emotive version: For what seemed a lifetime, Mr Smith was subjected to a vicious, cowardly assault by the unemployed, steroid-pumped monster.
EMOTIVE LANGUAGE
Non-emotive version: Another person in the bar was injured by the man's glass.
Emotive version: An innocent bystander suffered facial injuries when the thug launched his glass across the bar.

Non-emotive version: The government will reduce interest rates.
Emotive version: The government will slash interest rates.

Non-emotive version: Mr Smith was attacked by Mr Jones for two minutes.
Emotive version: For what seemed a lifetime, Mr Smith was subjected to a vicious, cowardly assault by the unemployed, steroid-pumped monster.
EMOTIVE LANGUAGE
He is svelte.
(positive spin)
He is skinny.
(negative spin)

You are meticulous.
(positive spin)
You are nitpicking.
(negative spin)

You are unassuming.
(positive spin)
You are plain.
(negative spin)
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