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Workshop - MGTS1601
Transcript of Workshop - MGTS1601
perception? Shortcuts to judging others give meaning The world that is perceived Perception of what reality is, not reality itself. Factors that shape and distort perception: Situation Target Perceiver Decision Making Biases Applications of Shortcutting Person perception refers to a general tendency to form impressions of other people How to make decisions Quality of choices Perception Awareness that a problem exists and whether a decision needs to be made is a perceptual issue! Every decision requires us to interpret and evaluate information. The decision maker’s process determines which data is relevant to the decision. perceptual distortions Process oriented approach Outcome oriented approach ? ? 1. pre-decision stage
2. final decision stage
3. post decision stage Selective Perception 83% of the sales executives rated sales as the most important problem in the case study that was given to them Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs. “And besides, you probably did what she said you did because you’re male and nobody would believe you anyway” Contrast Effect Same characteristics. prior poor context: good ratings
prior good context: poor ratings
context-free control: average ratings Halo Effect General impression Reponses with high positive halo were the fastest ones. It shows that they used a single impression to make multiple decisions. Which shortcut is it? Overconfidence bias: overly optimistic in their responses. Anchoring bias example: used a lot by sales people -> the first thing they say is always the most important. Confirmation bias Availability bias Tendency for people to judge based on information that is readily available Hindsight bias Once a company knows the outcome, they believe they can accurately predict it again for next time. Job interviews Job interviewers decisons change very little after they have formed their first impressions of candidates. Performance expectations An individual’s behaviour is determined by others expectations of them Performance evaluation Appraisal How can individual decisions be biased by shortcuts to judging others? Individuals interpret impressions Behavior Behaviorally important. Decision making process: bias analysis and conclusions. Stages of decision making process: Interests Background experience Attitudes Comparisons Single characteristic. how often do you think people are right when they say 100% sure? first impressions dilemma information after the first impression is less important. We tend to put more emphasis on information that agrees with our beliefs or re-affirms past choices, and vice versa. Events that evoke emotion or are more vivid tend to be more available in our memory. This reduces the ability to learn from the past. Self fulfilling prophecy. Continuation of employment. Pay increases Promotion Halo Effect Selective Perception Stereotyping Contrast Effect
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