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Copy of AP Bio- Ecology 1: Behavior
Transcript of Copy of AP Bio- Ecology 1: Behavior
Ecological processes occur at multiple levels of organization on Earth.
Each level of organization emerges from the processes of the level below it Behavior is an Organism-Level phenomenon. Anything an organism does, and how it does it. Big Question: Make Sure You Can 2 Kinds of Behaviors Innate Learned Behavior Evolves Behavior Requires Communication Particularly among animals (who tend to have the most interesting behaviors).
Communication takes many forms. It always involves a signal being transmitted and recieved. Chemical Signals Symbolic Signals Innate behaviors are entirely under genetic control learning requires experience Simple Innate Behaviors Complex Innate Behavior Imprinting 5 Types of Learning Spatial Cognition Associative Social Proximate vs. Ultimate Explanations Proximate: relates to how a behavior occurs.
Ultimate: relates to why a behavior is occurs. How is this
happening? Why is this
happening? Ethology: The study of behavior Substances in the environment, or pheromones produced by other organisms can serve as chemical signals Multiple lineages of animals have evolved symbolic methods of communication, where information is encoded in abstracted symbols (calls, gestures). Ex: Minnows in a tank responding to an alarm substance (a chemical on the skin of a predatory fish). Ex: Honeybee workers communicate the location of nectar sources to hive mates via a "waggle dance". Swagga? More like "Swaggle" Symbolic communication has increased in complexity and diversity over evolutionary time. Chemical signals can contribute to very complex behaviors (e.g. ant colonies). Fixed Action Patterns: Highly stereotypical behaviors that are triggered by a "sign stimulus", and that are completed once initiated. Ex: The aggression response in male 3-spine sticklebacks (a.) is initiated whever an object with a red underside (b.- bottom 4 objects) is presented to a male. Proximate explanations?
Ultimate explanations? While there is a limit on the amount of behavioral complexity that can be genetically programmed, there are many examples of complex innate behaviors. Ex: Mating rituals in Drosophila involve several distinct and complex behaviors. Graphic Sexual Content Young animals go through a "critical period" where after they follow the organisms present during the period. Ex: Imprinting in young geese and other birds. Proximate explanations?
Ultimate explanations? Footage of Lorenz and his geese Refers to the most complex types of learned behavior, that rely upon multiple mental processes (awareness, recall, reasoning, evaluation) to accomplish. Ex: An experiment that demonstrates support for the hypothesis that honeybees can remember and distinguish "same" from "different" Proximate explanations?
Ultimate explanations? The establishment of memories that reflect the physical structure of the environment. Ex: Association of physical markers (pine cone ring) with nest location in Digger wasps. The spatial education of mouse 109 Proximate explanations?
Ultimate explanations? Learning through observation and interaction with other individuals. Ex: A young chimpanzee learns to crack nuts by observing an elder. Proximate explanations?
Ultimate explanations? Australian children seem really mean Connecting one environmental feature with another. Ex: A bluejay learns to associate eating a monarch butterfly with subsequent vomiting. Proximate explanations?
Ultimate explanations? B.F. Skinner: "Operant Conditioning" It would be unwise to think of these two things as completely separate.
Why? 1. Behavior and Genetics 2. Behavior and the Environment 3. Behavior and Fitness 4. Altruism What is the relationship between an organism's genetics and its behaviors? There is always a relationship. Even if it is just for the ability to learn. Example 1: Insect Calls Example 2: Migration There are many species of Green Lacewing which are morphologically identical.
They can be hybridized in the lab. Hybrid lacewings have songs that have combined characteristics of both parental species. Young Blackcap birds were captured in Britain and raised in Germany. The birds from Britain demonstrated a migratory preference different from native, German, Blackcaps What is the relationship between an organism's genetics and its environment? Environmental constraints determine fitness, which includes behavior. Example 1: Foraging Foraging: Food-obtaining behavior.
Natural selection should favor minimized energetic cost, and maximized food acquisition ("optimal foraging theory") Crows demonstrate a food drop preference that is energetically optimized. Drosophila raised in different population densities evolve different foraging path lengths. Example 2: Parental Influence Learned behaviors have to be taught. Mice cross-fostered by other species show differences in aggression responses. Behavior should increase reproductive success Mating Systems Parental Care Sexual Selection Game Theory Applications The mating system has an effect on sexual dimorphism in a species Parental care is influenced by the certainty of paternity Mate preference of females can drive the evolution of male behavior. Male competition for mates can have similar effects ("agonistic behavior") Female zebra finches raised by ornamented males prefer ornamented mates. "Mate-choice copying":
Female guppies prefer more orange males...unless a less orange male is in courtship with a female. In which case, female guppies prefer that male. Agonism in Elephant Seals I wish males fought like this in DPHS! ...they kind of do... Game theory is a field of "Behavioral economics", which evaluates the advantages of different strategies. Example: Side-blotched lizards. Three male forms:
orange-throat: most aggressive, largest territory.
blue-throat: less aggressive, smaller territory.
yellow-throat: non-territorial, sneaky maters.
Orange outcompetes blue. Blue outcompetes yellow. Yellow outcompetes Orange.
"Rock, Paper, Scissors." Refers to any behavior that an organism engages in which increases the fitness of other organisms while decreasing its own fitness. Example: vervet monkeys sound alert calls in response to predators. How can this be explained? Relatedness. Altruism evolves in populations of closely related individuals.
Inclusive fitness: anything that increases proliferation of an organism's genes (not necessarily by the organism). "I would lay down my life for 2 siblings or eight cousins"
-JBS Haldane Female ground squirrels live closer to their birthplace, where relatives engage in altruistic warning behaviors. When attacked, members of Naked Mole Rat colonies will sacrifice themselves to preserve the life of the breeding "Queen". All colony members are siblings/cousins. Why do organisms behave in particular ways? Provide proximate and ultimate explanations for the behaviors discussed in this presentation.
Compare innate and learned behaviors and provide examples of each.
Describe how a particular behavior can evolve.
Explain how particular behaviors contribute to an organism's fitness.
Explain how altruistic behaviors can evolve in a population. Pheromone Communication in Ants Agression and the Betta fish Proximate explanations?
Ultimate explanations? Male stalk-eyed flies