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The Abbasid Caliphate

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olivia edwards

on 8 October 2013

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Transcript of The Abbasid Caliphate

Culture
During the Abbasid Caliphate dynasty the Persians had major influence in many things. The area that were influenced the most was art and architecture. The most popular mosque of the Abbasid was the mosque of Samarra near Baghdad between 848 and 851. A major accomplishment in literature was the Epic Poem "Shahnameh" (Book of Kings), It is a history of Persia from creation of Islamic conquest. It consist of about 50,000 verses. Three main art techniques were Calligraphy, Vegetal patterns, and Geometric pattern. "Al-Khwarizmi's Kitab al-Jabr wal-Muqabal", meaning The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, is one of the most important ever written for the math and sciences because it defined algebra as a separate branch of mathematics.
During the Abbasid Caliphate many different technology improved and culture developed.
The Abbasid Caliphate
Political Structure
The Abbasids came to power by having As-Saffah (first caliph) kill all the Umayyads. He turned the Umayyad's Arab empire into a mulitnational Muslim empire. They also moved the capital from Damascus, Syria, to Iraq. The new capital was Baghdad. The Abbasid Caliphate was a monarchy controlled by the Caliphs. The caliphate accepted non-Arabs as governors.
social structure
Cultural
and
Technological Accomplishments
At the top part of the Islamic Social ladder was the Caliph and his household.
The next level of social class was the professionals, traders, merchants, teachers, doctors.
The next level of social class was the Dhimmis, the protected people. These people were the Christians, Jews, and also the Zoroasterists.
These people were permitted to live freely as long as they paid taxes and recognized Islamic Political Supremacy.
At the bottom of the class system were the slaves.
Slaves in Islamic society were different than other slaves in history.
Slaves could gain freedom in various ways, classical mistreatment was not tolerated, slavery was not locked into a specific race.
Woman Inequality
Many of the stereotypes about Islamic gender roles date from the Abbasid period, such as the practice of keeping women out of public life, cloistering them and restricting their movements.
The status of a free Muslim woman, even a wife or mother, came to resemble very closely to that of a slave.
The key distinction was that a free woman belonged primarily within a family context; but in neither case was the woman considered an autonomous individual with property or professional rights comparable to those of men.
Women not only lost authority under the Abbasids; they also lost control over their bodies. Female infanticide had long been a threat in Middle Eastern cultures, as seen in the need for Muhammad to ban the practice. But it reemerged in the Abbasid period.
Adult women were increasingly seen as commodities, or like a trophy that represented that you had a more attractive wife than another man.
Economic Structure
Baghdad's economy relied on taxes, and wealth generated by trade and manufacturing. The empire was rich in gold, silver, copper, and iron and used them in trade. Farmers grew dates, rice, and other grains. The Abbasids introduced new breeds of livestock and spread cotton. Traders from Scandinavia to Africa came to Baghdad for the products of its industries.
Economic Structure Continued
Leather goods, textiles, paper, metalwork, and perfumes were sold in the city. The Abbasids developed something very similar to the banking system. They did not have bank buildings but business people invested in long distance trade and goods were bought on credit. They also had a postal system. They introduced a uniform coinage system that made commerce easier.
Important Caliphs
As-Saffah (First Caliph)
ended the Umayyad Caliphate
Reform of the army
included non-Muslims and non-Arabs
Al-Mansur
known as "real founder" of Abbasid Caliphate
literature and scholarly work emerged
Harun al-Rashid
most famous caliph
known for scientific, cultural, art, music, and religious prosperity
Technology
New technology wasn't invented but renovated. A major adoption from China was gunpowder. Formulas for pure potassium nitrate and an explosive gunpowder were becoming more advance. Other adoption that occurred was paper making. The windmill and watermill became more advantage. Crops such as almonds and citrus became more known in the area. Sugar cultivation also became known.
Abbasid Caliphate 750-1258
The Abbasid Caliphate overthrows the Umayyad Caliphate
750
AD
Abbasids united multiple small groups together that had hatred towards the Umayyads and took over the Umayyad Caliphate
The new Caliphate that was elected under the "Shura" was
Abbas Ibn Abd al-Muttalib
762
AD
Capital is moved
Damascus
Baghdad
capital is moved so it could be closer to most of their support base (Persia)
Capital is now located on/ near major trade routes
1258
Abbasid Empire Falls
AD
Key Events
the empire lasted for 500 years, but its peak ended almost 300 years earlier
forgot government responsibility
couldn't find a solution to the problem of holding together a very large empire under primitive circumstances of the early middle ages
Political System
Currency
Dinar (gold coin)
Dirham (silver coin)
Fals (copper coin)
Trade became the major income. Baghdad became the international trade center, which made trade freer, safer, and more extensive. Trade created a system of sophisticated banking and exchange.
Industry, agriculture, and commerce all flourished
VERY WEALTHY!
advances in math, science, medicine, and agriculture
continued...
The Abbasid Caliphate collected taxes and tributes from more distant provinces. Trading made the Caliphate very wealthy.
continued...
Al-Amin
son of Harun al-Rashid
was known as Muhammad
many disapproved of him because he was supposedly attracted to men
Al-Ma'mun
son of Harun al-Rashid and brother of Al-Amin
greatest patron of philosophy & science in Islam history
Incorporated Shakiriya
military units from Central Asia and North Africa, hired to serve for the Caliph
Al-Musta'sim
last caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate
Mongols took over Baghdad under his rule
Military
Shakiriya were used
military units from Central Asia and North Africa, hired to serve for the Caliph
Seljuqs controlled Baghdad between 978-1118 before the military was strong enough to defeat them and completely take over. About 400 years after the rise of the Abbasid Caliphate, the military was able to defend Baghdad against the Seljuqs in the Siege of Baghdad in 1157. This secured Iraq for the Abbasids.
continued...
The Caliphs towards the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate, made the military very large and powerful. The strongest period for the military was during the rise of the Caliphate and between the years of 1118-1206. Unfortunately, the military was not strong/large enough to defend against the Mongols. The Mongol Invasion of 1258 marked the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate.
*overthrown by the Mughal Empire*
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