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The African Plate

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on 13 December 2013

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Transcript of The African Plate

Plate Tectonics
African Plate, Volcanology
Located in the ring of fire, on the the east african rift, numerous volcanoes occur.
African Plate
The African Plate's speed is estimated at around 2.15 cm (0.85 in) per year.

Africa was the center of Pangaea. South America, Antarctica and India broke away from it leaving it surrounded on three sides by divergent plate boundaries. Only on the north is Africa converging on other plates.
African Plate
History or Geochronology
The African Plate
The African plate is bounded on the northeast by the Arabian Plate, the southeast by the Indo-Australian Plate, the north by the Eurasian Plate and the Anatolian Plate, and on the south by the Antarctic Plate. All of these are divergent or spreading boundaries with the exception of the northern boundary with the Eurasian Plate
Seismology
The geophysical science of earthquakes and the mechanical properties of the earth.
Volcanology
The scientific study of volcanoes and volcanic phenomena.
Geochronology
The chronology of the earth's history as determined by geologic events.
Geodesy
The geologic science of the size and shape of the earth.
Seafloor Spreading
The formation of new areas of oceanic crust, which occurs through the upwelling of magma at mid ocean ridges and its subsequent outward movement on either side.
Uplift
Tectonic uplift can be defined as the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic response to unloading.
Ocean Ridge
A mid-ocean ridge is a general term for an underwater mountain system that consists of various mountain ranges (chains), typically having a valley known as a rift running along its spine, formed by plate tectonics.
Pacific Ring of Fire
The Ring of Fire is an area where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean.
Subduction
A geologic process in which one edge of one crustal plate is forced below the edge of another.
Mountain building
The process of mountain formation, especially by a folding and faulting of the earth's crust.
Continental Crust vs. Oceanic Crust
Different layers of the Earth are made of materials with different physical properties. One of the most important physical properties that cause the formation of layers in the Earth is density. Density is defined as the mass per unit volume of a substance, so you can think of it as how heavy that material is. Layers that are less dense, such as the crust, float on layers that are denser, such as the mantle. Both oceanic crust and continental crust are less dense than the mantle, but oceanic crust is denser than continental crust. This is partly why the continents are at a higher elevation than the ocean floor.
The Eurasian Plate
The Eurasian Plate is moving approximately 2.5 centimeters a year. This is at the boundary. This boundary that separates the North American and Eurasian plate.
The African Plate includes several cratons, stable blocks of old crust with deep roots in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, and less stable terrains, which came together to form the African continent during the assembly of the super continent Pangaea around 550 million years ago.
Eurasian Plate, Boundries
The eastern side is a boundary with the North American Plate to the north and a boundary with the Philippine Sea Plate to the south, and possibly with the Okhotsk Plate and the Amurian Plate. The southerly side is a boundary with the African Plate to the west, the Arabian Plate in the middle and the Indo-Australian Plate to the east. The westerly side is a divergent boundary with the North American Plate forming the northernmost part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which is straddled by Iceland. The 1973 eruption of Eldfell, the volcano of the Icelandic island Heimaey, caused by the North American and the Eurasian plates moving apart, is a result of divergent plate boundary forces.
Eurasian Plate, Volcanology

This volcano is between the african plate and the Eurasian plate in a diversion zone.
Eurasian Plate, about the Boundries
Geochronology
Iceland offers scientists a natural laboratory for studying - on land - the processes that occur along submerged parts of a divergent boundary. Iceland is splitting along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge - a divergent boundary between the North American and Eurasian Plates.
The Plate Tectonic Theory
Plate-tectonics, is the belief that many of Earth's geological features, such as mountains, are caused by currents of solid rock which circulate in the mantle. These extremely slow flows of rock, are thought to be maintained by convection. The convection is claimed to be due to the temperature difference (about 3,000 degrees) between the top and the bottom of the mantle.
However, it is a fact that seismic studies have allowed scientists to determine the density of rock at all levels of the mantle, and laboratory experiments have given reasonable estimates of the temperatures (briefly, the deeper the rock is, the hotter and more dense it is). In particular, we know the densities of the cold rock at the top of the mantle and the hot rock at the bottom. So, one of the many, many, many problems with the mantle currents scenario (plate-tectonics), is that, contrary to assumption, the hot rock at the bottom of the mantle is much heavier than the colder rock anywhere above it. Thus the hot rock at the bottom of the mantle will never rise, it will just sit at the bottom of the mantle, forever. Consequently, mantle currents, do not, and cannot, exist.
Therefore, I believe the current plate tectonics theory is wrong.
African Plate
Size or Geodesy
Plate Area (km2)
Pacific 103,300,000
North America 75,900,000
Eurasia 67,800,000
Africa 61,300,000
Full transcript