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Transcript of Intelligence
What is Intelligence
-The application of cognitive skills and knowledge to learn, solve problems, and obtain ends that are valued by an individual or culture.
-tools to measure psychological attributes such as personality or psychological abilities.
History of Intelligence Testing
Individual and Group Differences
What is Intelligence?
In other words, what does it mean to be smart?
Ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
No matter your definition, intelligence is Multi-faceted, Functional, and Culturally Defined
Aptitude Tests, Achievement Tests, Interest Inventories, Personality Tests
uniform and objective procedures and scoring
test-retest; alternate form; split test
- content; predictive
(Design Your Own I.Q.Test)
a measure designed to assess an individual’s level of cognitive capabilities compared to other people in a population.
Intelligence is what intelligence tests measure
What came first?
Intelligence or Intelligence Testing.
(true or false?)
Francis Galton- 1884
Alfred Binet (and Theodore Simon)- 1904
Lewis Terman- ~1915
David Weschler- 1955
-to measure "natural ability" and encourage "selective mating"
-failed to find a simple intelligence measure
-influenced and influenced by "eugenics" movement
-response to universal education law in France
-identify students with special needs
-assumed intellectual development followed a consistent course
- Mental Age: level of performance associated with a chronological age
-no assumption about why some children outperform others
-adapted intelligence test creating "Stanford-Binet" test
-given to WWI army recruits and immigrants
-thought to measure "natural endowment"
-concept of I.Q. applied
I.Q.= Mental Age/Chronological Age x 100
-Western idea of "smart" became linked to measure of "school smarts"
-(WAIS) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
-(WISC) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
-11 subtests in Verbal and Performance areas
-Overall score and sub-scores allow identification of weaknesses
Intellectual disability: (mental retardation)
-below average general intellectual functioning (IQ < 70)
-deficits in adaptive functioning first --evident in childhood
~2% of the population
Mild to moderate
-Usually diagnosed in school, capable of reading and writing
-able to live independently with support
-Environment greater influence than genetics
Severe to profound
Unable to live independently
Cause – Genetics greater influence than environment
-Definition depends on society
-In the West, typically IQ > 130
-criticized for narrow definition
Heritability: the extent to which individual differences are linked to genetic factors
Those who believe that intelligence is biologically fixed tend to focus on proving and defending their identity.
Those who believe intelligence is changeable focus more on learning and growing (
"It is our choices...that show what we truly are, far more than our abilities."
1. Group differences provide no basis for judging individuals
3. Differences within groups are more likely to be genetic than differences between groups
2. Performance of modern populations exceed those of 30 years ago; does genetics explain this?
Cultural bias- experience and education impact results
Scientific bias- predictive value is different for different groups
Stereotype Threat- concern that one will be evaluated based on negative stereotype
A statistical procedure for identifying common elements, or factors, that underlie performance across a set of tasks.
sprint weights pullups situps
Sprint ----- .35 .45 .41
Weights ----- ------ .70 .52
Pullups ----- ------ ------ .57
Situps ----- ------ ------ ------
Shared by all these variables
Correlated, but not strongly
Ex. physical conditioning or athletic ability
Shared by some variables
Ex. weightlifting abilities & number of pullups = muscle strength
First to apply factor analysis to intelligence tests
Examined how children’s test scores related to class rank
Identified two factors:
, or general intelligence
(ex. Children with high class rank scored well on arithmetic ability, general knowledge, and vocabulary)
, or specific abilities
(ex. Children who scored well or poorly on math tests did not necessary score well on other tests)