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Transcript of Communities
Getting clear about communities in open innovation
by Joel West & Karim R. Lakhani (2008)
in open innovation
Role of communities;
Ways to define what a community is;
A welter of overlapping literature and terms.
What is a community
Firms and communities
How firms interact with communities:
In some cases, firms can be just a member of a community
In most cases, firms can take a central role in creating and organizing in the community
Problem: Find common interest
Individuals insulating themselves from corporate influence
Neglecting communities due to bad results
Firms ignore the need of communities
Community of what?
Social science: Community = group of individuals
Innovation studies: communities = fuzzy concept
1. Only self-governed groups of individuals
- Self control and independence
- Intention: Avoid firms to "steal" voluntary work
- Few resources, bugs
2. Mix of individuals and firms
- Increase effectiveness, and provide useful structures and tools for interaction and distribution of innovation
3. Groups of cooperating firms:
- Linked together by communality and interest
- Part of community construct?
what interactions constitute the basis for a group of individuals and/or firms to be in a community and where they reveal their innovations
Core and peripheral contributors:
Who participates the most
Types of interactions
Communities of practice:
knowledge transfer; →
Peer-to-peer assistance and peer evaluation:
direct link and actual production.
innovation communities, knowledge producing communities
user communities, virtual communities or
communities of practice.
That doesn’t even include the disparate uses of ‘‘community’’ in sociology, where Brint (2001) recounts that some 100 different definitions have been used.
Here we do not attempt to impose a single definition of ‘‘community’’ applicable to all innovation studies. Instead, we encourage researchers to explicitly articulate the theoretical and phenomenological boundaries of their use of the term, both to build upon earlier scholarship and to enable subsequent scholars to build on them.
Can a group of firms be a community?
Interorganizational networks vs. communities - are there theoretical or practical differences between the concepts?
Define the community concept;
Span conflicting theories;
Investigate different types of communities.
What are the complexity limits of community's organizational structure?
How can a community ensure modularity of innovations and research?
Can a community damage the firm?
Does this really matter?
What is a community without the sense of community?
Can a community without intracommunity interaction exist?
Does the communication which does not facilitate innovation influence the internal structure of it?
Questions and comments
Open innovation = Outside the boundaries of the firm;
In the article, bounded scope in two ways:
Gläser (2001): a voluntary association of actors, typically lacking in a priori common organizational affiliation (i.e. not working for the same firm) but united by a shared instrumental goal—in this case, creating, adapting, adopting or disseminating innovations;
Communities can consist of:
- groups of individuals
- mix of individuals and firms
- only groups of firms
A firm can be just a member of a community or a center of it.
Communities can be sponsored by the firm, guiding the community towards company goals.
A firm-sponsored community results in more control for the firm, but it requires more resources.
Open source software (Mozilla Firefox)
West & Gallager (2006)
distinguishes between active community and a consumer base.
can save money
difficult to detect structure
Many definitions of communities;
Community-based innovation by its nature takes place outside the boundaries of the firm.
Access to a pool of talents
Lack of control and competitor insight
Firm and community
Based on: Powell (1990), O'Mahony (2003), von Hippel (2005), West and Gallagher (2006), Vanhaverbeke (2006).
Based on: Chesbrough (2003), Gläser (2001)
Based on: Välimäki (2003), O'Mahony (2009), West & Gallagher (2006), O'Mahony (2003), Dahlander & Magnusson (2005), and Hienerth et al (2006).
Based on: Crowston (2006), Knorr Cetina (1999), Brown & Duguid (1991)
Based on: Chesbrough (2003), von Hippel (1988)
Success of one member, strengthen the success of other members
Presenters: Iryna Shekhovtsova, Linn-Birgit Kampen Kristensen, Martine Austenaa, Lise Mari Lande, Ida Skårholen