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Astronomy Timeline (Anya/Rebecca)
Transcript of Astronomy Timeline (Anya/Rebecca)
Copernicus agreed with Aristarchus and said the universe was Heliocentric.
He said that orbits are perfect circles. He also built his own observatory.
Aristarchus declared the sun as the center of the universe. He was the first to go against the Catholic church's idea that the universe was geocentric. Few people accepted his idea though.
Pythagorous said the universe revolved around a fire center and there was a "counter-earth".
Ptolemy expanded the star catalog. He also said the universe was geocentric.
Galileo created th first astronomical telescope. He observed Saturn and its rings which were unidentifiable at the time. He was also the first to observe sun spots through his telescope.
Aristotle said the Earth was a sphere and the the universe was geocentric. He also wrote "On the Heavens."
Newton discovered gravity existed in space. He saw Jupiter through a refractive light telescope.
William Hershel discovered Uranus was a planet. There were several observations of Uranus before that, but in every case, it was mistaken as a star since it moves so slowly in the sky. British astronomers decided to name the new planet Uranus, after the father of Saturn in Roman mythology.
Galileo was the first to observe Saturn through a telescope. Many years later, in 1659, Christiaan Huygenss discovered Saturn's rings.
Only 2 of the 8 planets of our solar system have official "discoverers" and "times of discovery". This is because all of the other planets are easily seen by the unaided human eye. This means that mankind has seen these bodies in the celestial sphere ever since they started looking towards the sky.
There was a rivalry between two astronomers, Britain’s John Couch Adams and France’s about who should get credit for finding Neptune. Eventually both LA Verrier and Adams were given credit for discovering Neptune in
The planet was named after the Roman god of the oceans; the same as the Greek God Poseidon.
The Chinese were the first to record Halley’s Comet in
The Chinese also observed a supernova in
which is what we see today as the Crab Nebula.
In the early
Kepler proposed three theories about planetary motion that later became laws.
1 - The path of the planets about the sun is elliptical in shape, with the center of the sun being located at one focus. (The Law of Ellipses)
2 - An imaginary line drawn from the center of the sun to the center of the planet will sweep out equal areas in equal intervals of time. (The Law of Equal Areas)
3 - The ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their average distances from the sun. (The Law of Harmonies)
The Chinese used astronomy for scientific reasons. They were the first in history to record an eclipse (
). They followed a twelve-month calendar and calculated that a year was 365.25 days long.
The earliest traceable roots of mathematics and astronomy are found in ancient Mesopotamia, which nowadays is made up of Iraq and its neighbors. The Babylonians of Mesopotamia practiced dividing the circle into 360 parts, creating the degree measurement. They also created the 24-hour day and the 12 zodiac signs.
The earliest Egyptian calendar was based on the moon's cycles, but later the Egyptians realized that Sirius rose next to the sun every 365 days. Based on this knowledge, they devised a 365-day calendar that seems to have begun in
the earliest recorded year in history.
Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of the Earth. He knew that, on the summer solstice, at local noon in the Ancient Egyptian city of Swenet the sun would appear at the zenith. He then measured the sun's angle of elevation at noon on the solstice in his hometown of Alexandria. Using basic geometry, he calculated the circumference of the earth. (Around
276 BC – 195 BC
6th Period - Newman