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Goal Setting and Motivation

their effects goal specificity on motor performance

Katie Meredith

on 2 June 2013

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Transcript of Goal Setting and Motivation

Goal Specificity why is 'do your best' less effective?
locke & latham 2002 theory of goal setting 3 groups: control, specific goal, verbal encouragement
no feedback of initial time in any group
all groups showed improvement
biggest improvement - verbal encouragement our experiment: background what makes a good goal? 'specific and challenging goals are best for performance.' (locke & latham, 2002) why make specific goals? 4 mechanisms how does it work? a good goal...
is difficult
is specific
has feedback relating to the goal
is created with involvement from the participant (tubbs 1968) objectivity
external reference further challenges participant
reduces ambiguity and variation 'directive function'
energise - especially with physical tasks
increase persistence
strategy and action planning (locke and latham 2002) the wall hold what affects our goals? the 'moderators' of goal setting goal commitment:
self efficacy
complexity of the task why? what could possibly go wrong? nelson (1987) showed a realistic goal had a slight 'delineating effect': subjects stopped once goal was reached
goals must be set appropriately locke & latham's core findings (locke and latham 2002) references locke EA et al (2000), goal setting and task performance, Psychological Bulletin, 90: 125-152
magill RA (1979), social aspects of the psychology experiment. In: Human Experimental Psychology, Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole, pp. 104-134
tubbs ME (1986), goal setting: a meta-analysis examinatino of the empirical evidence. JAP, 71: 474-483
nelson JK (1978), motivating effects of the use of norms and goals with endurance testing, research quarterly, 49: 317-321
weinburg R et al (1990), effect of goal difficulty and positive reinforcement on endurance performance, journal of sport and exercise psychology, 12: 114-156 and 13: 160-173 locke EA, latham GP (2002), building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation, Amercian Psychologist, 57: 705-717 The Effect of Goal Setting and Motivation on motor performance Katie Meredith, Georgie Lee & Grace Williams Katie Meredith Goal setting level of performance on a task that is established for a person to achieve in the future. wall squat test - 3 groups
- 1 control, 1 goal setting and 1 verbal encouragement
- asked to initially hold the wall squat position for as long as possible
-then retested in their groups the next week
- all showed some improvement Motivation, Goal setting and types of goals How do you think goal setting works to enhance task performance? Could we have got even better results by using unrealistically high goals? - see the Nelson (1978) study in Magill (1993) Grace Williams “One of the problems faced by those who provide motor skill instruction is motivating people to achieve the best performance they can. While these people want to learn the skill being taught there may be difficulties exercting maximum effort during practice or rehabilitation sessions. One of the ways that has been shown to help overcome this problem is the use of goal setting” (Magill, 1993) wall squat test wall squat pooled results nelsons results “goals are performance objectives that can be effective for motivating an individual to remain in a learning or performance situation.” goal setting guidelines nelson SD References Motivation and Verbal Encouragement What do the results suggest about the effect of verbal encouragement on the performance of a motor task? What does the literature say about how to make verbal encouragement more effective? Georgie Lee Link between Motivation and Verbal encouragement Motivation: driving force behind an athletes determination to reach a specific goal or outcome;

Two types of Motivation:
Intrinsic- driven by an interest in the task itself; comes from within the individual
Extrinsic - performance of an activity in order to obtain an outcome

Verbal encouragement is a type of motivation commonly used in sports performance Background Verbal Encouragement - To provide external support and reassurance when participating in an activity or exercise; What do our results suggest about the effect of verbal encouragement on the performance of a motor task? Our Experiment Results Pooled Experiment Results Verbal encouragement effects on maximal effort voluntary muscle contraction McNair, PJ. Specific stimuli (i.e. loud noises) disengages supraspinal inhibition causing greater and prolonged strength in the subject

5% increase in strength in those that received verbal encouragement
8% increase in strength in those that received verbal encouragement at a higher amplitude Feedback and maximum Voluntary Contraction Peacock, B. Subjects provided with either:
No feedback
Auditory feedback
Visual Feedback
Combination of both visual and auditory feedback

10% increase when subjects received some sort of feedback
Greatest improvements occurred when a combination of auditory and visual feedback was used. What does literature say about how to make verbal encouragement more effective? Relationship between verbal command volume and magnitude of muscle contraction Johansson, CA. Increase of 22 dB lead to an 8% increase in subjects performance

Moderate intensive tone evokes gamma motorneurons
Higher intensive tone evokes higher threshold alpha motor neurons "Depending on the set of muscles required for a particular movement, the nervous system may selectively tune the relevant portions of the auditory motor pathway to make the most efficient use of an expected auditory signal in the control of motor unit discharge." -McClean, MD. Impact of immediate visual feedback and verbal encouragement on grip strength. Desrosiers, J. Subjects placed into five different categories, where they were provided with either:
1. Visual feedback
2. Verbal encouragement in a normal volume voice
3. Verbal encouragement in a high volume voice
4.Verbal encouragement at a normal volume combined with visual feedback
5.Verbal encouragement at a high volume combined with visual feedback

Results - higher strength generated in groups 3 & 5, both which received high volume verbal encouragement. References Desrosiers, J. Rochette, A. Boutin, C. (1998) Impact of immediate visual feedback and verbal encouragement on grip strength. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy. 5: 25-29.

Johansson, CA. Kent, BE. Shepard, KF. ( ) Relationship between verbal command volume and magnitude of muscle contraction. Physical Therapy Journal. 63(8). 1260-1265

McClean MD. (1981)Some effect of auditory stimulation on perioral motor unit discharge and their implications for speech production. J Acoust Soc, 69: 1452-1457

McNair, PJ. Depledge, J. Brettkelly, M. Stanley, SN. (1996) Verbal encouragement: effects on maximum effort voluntary muscle action. Br J Sports Med Journal. 30: 243-245

Peacock, B. Westers, T. Walsh, S. Nicholson, K. (1981) Feedback and maximum voluntary contraction. School of Physiotherapy, Canada. 24(3). 223-228.

Ryan, ED. (1961) Effect of differential motive-incentive conditions on physical performance. Research Quarterly. 32: 83-87. Core content & Discussion Core content & Discussion Core content & Discussion Core content & Discussion Core content & Discussion Set goals that will enhance skill mastery
Set objective goals
Set goals that are meaningful
Set goals that are attainable
Set goals according to individual differences
Set goals on the basis of past experiences
Set both short and long term goals - Locke EA, Latham GP (2002) Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. American Psychologist, 57: .

-Locke EA, Shaw KN, Saari LM, Latham GP (2000) Goal-setting and task performance: 1969- 1980. Psychological Bulletin, 90: 125-152.

-Magill RA (1993) Motor Learning. Concepts and Applications, 4th edition. Madison,PP PP

-Wisconsin: Brown and Benchmark, pp. 400-409.

-Tubbs ME (1986) Goal setting: a meta-analytic examination of the empirical evidence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71: 474-483. goals could limit our full potential take home messages specific goals are more effective than 'do your best' goals: they are objective and direct our focus
feedback in relation to your goals may have increased performance
don't let goals limit your performance
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