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THE AUGUSTAN AGE: The Rise Of The Novel
Transcript of THE AUGUSTAN AGE: The Rise Of The Novel
Newspapers then and now
(1667 - 1745)
Gulliver's Travels: the plot
What is Gulliver's Travels?
Gulliver, the European
The BBB's Followers
: Laputa->absent minded people/scientists.
->Yahoos: stupid,vicious animals,similar to humans.
->Houyhnnms: intelligent horses.
: Back to England-> Gulliver doesn't tolerate his society anymore.
-Satirical vein of novel.
-Children's classic (Lilliput section).
-Plain and simple style.
-Gulliver's Travels is: an adventure story, a travel book,one of the first science-fiction stories,a political satire and a forerunner of the modern novel.
-Beginning of the history->
(Middle aged,educated,sensible and scrupulous)
Changement of his moral perspectives.
-Humor, comic distortion.
-Gulliver's travels through fantastic places/ pretext for satire.
-Objects of Swifts satire: European governments,human corruption, society
-Lilliputians->vicious and unscrupulous.
-King of Brobdingnag: sees Europe in the same way as Swift.
-Laputans: parody of theoreticians.
-Humans not different from Yahoos.
Laurence Sterne (1713 - 1768)
Life and works
Born in Ireland in 1713
Studied at Cambridge (degree: 1731)
Began an ecclesiastical career in 1741
The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy
----> 1759 - 1767
A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy
Died in London in 1768
The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy
: the anti - novel
original print design (asterisks, arabesques, completely white/black pages)
plot: narration that presents events in an almost
association of ideas and thoughts of the narrator and the characters
the chapters are very different in length
The characters and the narrator
Tristram Shandy is the expected hero, but
does not play
a predominant part in the story
the story focuses on a series of eccentric characters and the narrator's comic portrayal of them
the narrator has a
variety of roles
: he is a witness to the events, but also a character
The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy influenced:
writers of the time (Diderot and the German Romantics)
authors of the 20th century (Virginia Woolf and James Joyce)
modern writers (Italo Calvino)
Henry Fielding (1707-54)
Life and main works
Born in 1707, studied at Eton
Began his career as a playwright in 1728
Became a barrister to support his family
An Apology for the Shameful Life of Mrs Shamela Andrews
The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews
The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling
Died in Lisbon in 1754
Tom Jones: the plot
, brought up by Mr Allworthy, in Somerset
young man, popular with the ladies
develops affection for
, whose father oppose their love
obliged to live the house, due to Blifil's jealousy and his conspiracies
faces a series of
during his travels
is discovered to be the
son of Allworthy's sister
married Sophia, after Blifil is unmasked
Comic epic novel:
-->various plots evolving at the same time, full of action, vivid picture of English society in the 18th century
-->descriptions and similies that appear in an epic, not to make characters seem heroic, but to mock them
The narrator and the characters
different social classes
-->picture of life in 18th-century England
the narrator intervenes in the plot, adressing the reader, giving his own
from other characters (Charles Dickens, William Thackeray)
many features of
The Epistolary Novel
Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded
15-year-old Pamela Andrews is a maidservant for Lady Davers
Mr. B is Lady Daver's son
He's attracted to her
tries to seduce her
Pamela tells her story through letters to her parents
He abducts and tries to rape her
Mr. B's behaviour changes
Pamela falls in love with him
Ending: Marriage and new social position for Pamela
Epistolary Novel & Book's Success
written in epistolary form
letters written mainly by Pamela (also her parents)
accurate introspective view of Pamela's feelings
a "static" narration,
with actions and dialogues
one of the greatest literary success in 18th century
"Pamela obsession" & objects
Aim Of The Book & Psychological Characterisation
Amusement, teaching and moralising
rewards for virtue and punishment for sins
gain a higher social status (Pamela's marriage)
deep and thorough psychlogical analysis
Pamela & Mr. B
Novel's happy ending => fairy tale
at 1st arrogant, then loving and caring
Heroine and rebel
(1702-1735) -> the first English daily newspaper
while Defoe founded 'The Review'
The gentleman's Magazine
(1731, London) -> the first general-interest magazine
-> deal with:
home / overseas news
sport / cultural events
book / film reviews
a lot of photographs
a simple / colloquial language
The most famous: The Times (1785)
-Letters written by the characters.
-Emotions and thoughts.
-From mid-1700s to the end of the century.
: Richardson's Pamela
Montesquieu's Lettres Persanes
Rousseau's La Nouvelle Heloise
: Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther
: Foscolo's Le Ultime Lettere di Jacopo Ortis
Le ultime lettere di Jacopo Ortis
The language is literary and refined
there are philosophical considerations
condemnation of Italy's social and political situation
The language is personal and emotional
The protagonist speaks more of feelings and thoughts than social questions
The gentlemen's clubs
set up in the 18th century
upper class men (at the beginning)
game clubs -> gamble safely (illegal)
relax / mix with friends
discuss about business and politics
more people from the lower class (19th century)
not every one was admitted to a club
defined by profession
clubs for Whigs and Tories
exclusive clubs for men from Oxford or Cambridge
only for aristocratic bloodlines
exotic coffees and chocolates
London -> St James in the West End
great success with growing membership
unofficial meeting places
not all clubs accept women
In the United States
around the East Coast and in the older cities like Boston, Philadelphia, New York
Somerset Club foundend in Boston (1826)
Yale Club ( New York ) is the largest American Club