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Grammer Handbook

By Allyson and Kirsten M. and Hibah and Tasnim A.

Allyson Ma

on 17 April 2015

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Transcript of Grammer Handbook

Allyson, Hibah, Tasnim, &Kirsten
Grammer Handbook
Parts of Speech Overview
Using Pronouns Clearly
Prepositions for Time, Place,
and Introducing Objects

What is the Difference between
Adjectives and Adverbs?

Identifying Independent and
Dependent Clauses

Sentence Types and Punctuation

You have to use the correct pronoun in order to clarify with the reader which type of noun your pronoun is referring to.
An appositive is either a noun or a pronoun (ofter with modifiers) which is beside another noun or pronoun, so it can explain or identify.
Adjectives: These words change the nouns.
One point in time:
• On is showed with days- EX. We will swim on Friday.
• At is used with noon, night, midnight, and time of day- EX. The show will start at 7p.m.
• In is used with other parts of day, with months, seasons, and years-

Independent Clause
A noun is a person, place, or thing. A noun answers who and what in a sentence.
Example: The unicorn had a rainbow horn.
In the sentence above, there are two nouns: unicorn
horn. Nouns can be concrete or abstract. A
concrete noun is something you can touch. An
abstract noun is a noun you can not "see" or "touch".
Example: The narwhal could feel the love in the air between the two unicorns.
In this sentence, the word
is the noun.
All proper nouns must be capitalized.
For example: Allyson, Hibah,
Tasnim, and Kirsten are all proper nouns, so they are capitalized.
In a sentence, a pronoun takes the place of a noun.
Example: She wanted to see an unicorn.
The word
is the pronoun in the sentence. "She"
can stand for Allyson, Hibah, Kirsten, Tasnim, etc.
Pronouns can be used as subjects OR objects in a sentence.
Example: She asked him if he
wanted to see an unicorn.
In this sentence,
are pronouns.
is the
subject of the sentence, while
is the object of the sentence.
Subject and Object Pronouns
Subject Pronouns
Object Pronouns
Articles include a, an , and the. Articles come before a noun in a sentence.
Example: I like the rainbow
unicorns the most.
In this sentence,
is the
An adjective is a word that describes a noun OR a pronoun. Adjectives can come before a noun or after a reflexive verb.
Example: Yesterday, the narwhal woke up early to see the orange-pinkish sun, sending rays through his window.
In this sentence,
is an adjective.
is also
an adjective.
A verb is an action word
Example: The girl walked the balance beam
with ease.
In this sentence, the word
is the verb
Word that look like verbs, but act's like different
things are called "verbals."
Making Subjects and Verbs Agree
Irregular Verbs: Overview and List
Capitalization and Punctuation
An adverb modify nouns. Adverbs also describe
verbs. Most adverbs end in -ly.
Example: The unicorn quickly slid down the rainbow.
In this sentence, the word
is the adverb.
Notice that it ends in -ly.
Conjunctions join two independent clauses together (Two sentences). Remember to use a comma before a conjunction.
Example: The girl was excited to watch the tennis match,
but the match was postponed due to the bad weather.
In this sentence, there are two independent clauses. "The girl was
excited to watch the tennis match.",
and "The match was postponed due to the bad weather." The conjunction
connects the two sentences.
To remember the conjunctions,
you can use the acronym,
"FANBOYS." This stands for
, and
Pronouns Should:
1) agree in number
2) agree in person
3) Refer clearly to a specific noun
#1: Agree in Number
-If a pronoun takes the place of a SINGULAR noun, you have to use a SINGULAR pronoun.
-If a pronoun takes the place of a PLURAL noun, you have to use a PLURAL pronoun.

Prepositions work with nouns or pronouns to make phrases that describe verbs, kinds of nouns, or adjectives.
The bee flew inside the bottle. (Remember this example?:P)
In this sentence,
"in the bottle"
the prepositional phrase.
is the
actual preposition.
Examples of Prepositions



You capitalize the first letter of proper nouns, the first letter of a sentence, and the pronoun "I".
Example: Mister Narwhal went to the Pacific Ocean to meet Miss Little Unicorn
In this sentence, the

in Mister is capitalized,
because it is the first
letter in the sentence.
in Narwhal, and Miss Little Unicorn's name are also capitalized, because they are names.
"Pacific Ocean"
capitalized, because it
the name of a place.
Commas are used to connect two independent clauses and coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS).
Use a comma AFTER a
a introductory phrase, a
prepositional phrase, or a
dependent clause.
Example: I wanted to go to Six Flags
for my birthday, but my parents took me
to Hurricane Harbor instead.
In this sentence (and the one above), the comma
connects two independent clauses and a coordinating
Example: Mister Chubby, the hippo, waddled into the
water hole.
In this sentence
the hippo
is the appositive.
Mr. Chubby is the noun

You can use and combine some of these patterns to punctuate a sentence.

Pattern 1: Simple Sentence
A simple sentence is a sentence with an independent clause.
Example: Independent clause.
I like Timmy.
In this sentence, " I like Timmy is the independent

Pattern 2: Compound Sentences

A compound sentence is a sentence with 2 independent clauses that is joined by a comma and coordinating conjunction. There are 7 coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
Example: Independent clause, coordinating
conjunction independent clause.
I like Timmy, and I like Cosmo.

In this sentence, "I like Timmy" and "I like
Cosmo" are the independent clauses. The
coordinating conjunction is "and".
Pattern 3: Compound Sentence
A compound sentence is a sentence that has 2 independent clauses that is joined by a semicolon.
Example: Independent clause; Independent
I like Timmy; I like Cosmo.
In this sentence, the two independent clauses are "I like Timmy" and "I like Cosmo".
Pattern 4: Compound Sentence
A compound sentence is a sentence with 2 independent clauses and a independent marker in between them. Independent markers: therefore, moreover, thus, consequently, however,also.
Example: Independent clause; independent marker, independent clause.
I like Timmy; also, I like Cosmo.

Independent clause: I like Timmy
Independent marker: also
2nd independent clause: I like Cosmo

Pattern 5: Complex Sentence
A complex sentence is a sentence with a dependent marker, dependent clause, and an independent clause. Dependent markers: because, before, since, while, although, if, until, when, after, as, as if.
Examples: Dependent marker Dependent clause,
Independent clause.
When I do homework, I always turn off the t.v.
Dependent marker: When Dependent clause: I do homework
Independent clause: I always turn off the t.v.
Pattern 6: Complex Sentence
A complex sentence is a sentence with an independent clause, dependent marker, and dependent clause.
Example: Independent clause Dependent marker Dependent clause.
Spinach is good for you because of the nutrients.
Independent clause: Spinach is good for you Dependent marker: because
Dependent clause: of the nutrients
Pattern 7
This pattern has an independent clause with an embedded non-essential clause or phrase in it. A non-essential clause or phrase can be took out without changing the meaning of the sentence. Another way to say it is that non-essential clause or phrase is additional information and the sentence can work without it.
Example: First part of an independent clause
, non-essential clause or phrase, rest of the independent clause.
Spinach, a type of leaf, is good for you.
First part of an independent clause: Spinach
Non-essential clause or phrase: a type of leaf
Rest of the independent clause: is good for you.
Pattern 8
This pattern has an independent clause with an embedded essential clause or phrase. Essential clause or phrase cannot be took out without changing the understanding and meaning of a sentence.
Example: First part of an independent clause essential clause or phrase rest of independent clause.
Pop Eye who eats his spinach is strong.
First part of independent clause: Pop Eye
Essential clause or phrase: who eats his spinach
Rest of independent clause: is strong

You use commas
for lists.
Example: I like unicorns, rainbows, narwhals,
glitter, Elmo, and ME.
Use commas after a sentence
when using quotations.
Example: "I want
that one," the unicorn
A semicolon is used to join two sentences(or
independent clauses) if the two clauses are
Example: I like unicorns; they are cool.
Example: I like rainbows; I like ninjas.
Like a comma, a semicolon can put together lists.
Example: I like unicorns; narwhals; rainbows: and glitter.
Colons join two independent clauses when you want to emphasize your second clause.
Example: There are two things a unicorn cannot stand:
non-believers, and regular horses.
Use a colon after a sentence when it precedes a quotation, an appositive, an idea, or a list.
Example: I need to go to Target to get a few things: food,
food, and food!
Use a comma at the end of a formal letter's greeting.
Example: Dear Sire:
Use a colon to separate hours and minutes.
Example: 8:39 p.m.
Use a colon to separate the chapter and verse
in a Bible reference.
Example: Psalms 23:1-6
Parentheses are used to highlight content. They highlight more enclosed content than commas do. Parentheses are used to set off material that is nonessential like dates, making information clear, or sources.
The unicorn decided to date the narwhal (after a long time of persuading) in Unicorntopia.
Add a parentheses for citations and numbered lines.
Example: The girl met a unicorn (1). She said it was awesome (2). She would do anything to see it again (3).
Example: The FMI (Funky Model Inc.) decided to design a new
Dashes are used to highlight the information
enclosed in the dashes or the information that
trails behind a dash. Dashes emphasize information more than parentheses do.
Example: The unicorn only had one word to describe the fly on his melted ice cream cone-disgusting.

Use a dash to set off an appositive phrase that already
has a comma.
Example: The clique-Stevie Joe, Billy, Lama,
and Niji-went to the crystal waterfall
Quotation Marks
Use quotation marks to mark word-for-word quotes. Commas and periods are put INSIDE the quotation marks, and colons and semicolons are put OUSIDE. Exclamation marks depend.
Example: "I like glitter," Billy the sad flower said.
Use quotation marks for book and song titles, stories,
magazines, newspaper articles, essays, speeches, chapter titles, films, and episodes.
Example: I read the book "A Modest Proposal" last week.
Do NOT use quotations if the sentence is
not word-for-word.
Example: Ileagh MacIvers said she liked unicorns last week.
Use italics on titles, speeches, essays, stories, and episodes of television or radio shows.
Example: The
Chronicles of Narnia
is my favorite book.
Should be italicized, but
Prezi cannot do italics.
Use italics on foreign words
means "hello" in French.
also should be italicized.
Hyphens are used to bring together compounds that may be written separately.
Example: The girl hated her baby-sitter because she thought she was mean.
Use a hyphen to connect two or more words that are adjectives before nouns.
Example: Stripey-Candy delight was the new sweets fad in Unicorntopia.
Use hyphens for compound numbers, to avoid confusions,with prefixes and suffixes, to divide words, and for line breaks.
Apostrophes have 3 uses
To make possessives in nouns
To show omissions in letters
To show certain plurals of lowercase letters
Example: The boy's hat was purple.
Add 's to the end of the word you are trying to make possessive. Add ' to the word if it already ends in a "s."
Example: This is Bess' cat.
Add 's to the last noun if there is more than
one noun you want to make possessive.
Example: This is Billy and Lama's soil.
Ellipsis and Brackets
An ellipsis is known as dot dot dot(...). An ellipses is a series of dots indicating omission(anything left out).

Example: The lost unicorn was found, but nobody every found
the poisoned scepter was never found...
A bracket is like a parentheses, but inside quotation marks. Brackets can be used inside parentheses for further clarification.
Example: The unicorn really wanted IT[a rainbow pool] for his birthday.
Example: The mall was closed(due to bad weather[tornado]), and the people were sad.
1. When the subject of a sentence has 2 or more pronouns or nouns that is connected by
, you will use a plural verb.
Example: Lucy and her mom are at the mall.
Pronouns or nouns: Lucy; her mom
Plural verb: are

2. When 2 or more singular pronouns or nouns are connected by
, you will use a singular verb.

Example: The salt or the pepper is in the cabinet.

Singular pronouns or nouns: the salt; the pepper
Singular verb: is
3. When a compound subject has both a singular and a
plural pronoun or noun connected by
, the verb should agree with the part of the subject that is closer to the verb.
Example:The pen or the books hide in the drawer.
The books or the pen hides in the drawer.
Singular: The pen: hides Plural: The books: hide

is a contraction for
does not
and it should only be used with a singular subject.
is a contraction for
do not
and it should only be used with plural subjects. The objection to this rule is the first person and second person pronouns
. The contraction
should be used with these pronouns (formal writing doesn't use contractions).
Example: She doesn't hate it. They don't hate it.
Singular subject: She: doesn't Verb: hate
Plural subject: They: don't
5. Don't get the wrong idea by a phrase that comes between the verb and the subject.The verb would agree with the subject, not with a pronoun or noun in the phrase.
Example: One of the cabinets is open.
Subject: One Verb: is

6. These words: each, each one, either, neither, everyone, everybody, anybody, anyone, nobody, somebody, and no one are singular and they need a singular verb.

Example: Every'body is smart

Singular verb: is

7. Nouns like civics, mathematics, dollars, measles and news need singular verbs.
Example: The measles is spreading.
Singular verbs: is
(The word
has a special case. When talking about amount, it needs a singular verb. When talking about dollars themselves, it needs a plural verb.
Example: 20 dollars is all the money I have.
Dollars are in the U.S.
Singular verb: is Plural verb: are
8. Nouns like scissors, tweezers, trousers, and shears need plural verbs. (There are als0 2 parts to these things.)

Example: These shears are big. These tweezers are good.

Plural verbs: are

9. When sentences start with
there is
there are
the subject would follow the verb. Because
the subject, the verb will agree with what follows it.
Example: There are a lot of pencils. There is a pencil.
Verb: are; is What follows there: a lot of pencils; a pencil

10. Collective nouns are words that would signify more than one person but that's considered singular and would take a singular verb: team, group, class, committee, and family.
Example: The team is strong. My family has a strong bond.
Singular verb: is; has
Sometimes, a sentence may need the use of a plural verb when using a collective noun.
Example: The citizens are needed to work.
The sentence above refers to the individual
efforts of each member.

11. Expressions like: with, together with, including, accompanied
by, in addition to, or as well, doesn't change the subject's number.
If the subject is singular, the verb is singular too.
Example: The manager, including the assistant manager, is gone.
Every worker, in addition to customers, are mean.
Singular verb: is Plural verb: are

Simple Present: They jog
Present Perfect: They have jogged.
Simple Past: They jogged
Past Perfect: They had jogged.
Future: They will jog.
Future Perfect: They will have jogged.
Sequencing tenses' problems happen with
perfect tenses, which all forms by adding
an auxiliary or auxiliaries to the past
particle, third principal part.
Examples: jog, jogged, jogged
talk, talked, talked
Most common auxiliaries are forms of: be, can, do, may
must, ought, shall, will, has, have, had and they're forms
we'll use in basic discussion.
Present Perfect
Sequence of Tenses
The present perfect has a past particle (known as the
3rd principal part) that has: has or have. It appoints a specific position of action which starts in the past, but is still going into the present or the effect still continues.
Example: 1.Allyson screamed at Ileagh.
(simple past)

2.Allyson has screamed at Ileagh.
(present perfect)
The involvement of (1) Allyson is mad at Ileagh; (2) she is still screaming.
Example: 1.Tasnim did her chores. She can go to the mall.
2.If Tasnim has done her chores, she can go to the movies.
Infinitives can also have perfect tense forms when joined with "have," and sometimes problems appear when the infinitives are used with verbs like: hope, plan, expect, and intend, when it all points into the future (I wanted to see a cartoon. Hibah meant to see a nurse.) It has a perfect tense that sets up a sequence by marking the action that began and was finished before the action of the main verb.

Example: 1 .I'm happy to participate in the spelling bee
2. Kirsten had hoped to have won a medal.
The main verb's action goes back in time;
the perfect infinitive's action is completed.

Punctuation of Appositives
Sometimes, the noun is being explained too generally without the appositive; (the information is important concluding to the sentence.)
**Don’t put commas by the appositive because it’s not necessary. The commas are only needed, if the sentence is clear and complete without the appositive. Put one comma before and after the appositive. **
Example: The known, outspoken leader, Martin Luther King Jr. spoke for black rights.
We don’t place commas by appositives, because it’s other information. If there isn’t any appositive, the sentence would be, “The outspoken leader spoke for black rights.” We wouldn’t know which leader was being referred to.
Then, we put commas by the appositive because it’s not that important. Without appositives, the sentence would be, “Martin Luther King Jr. spoke for black rights.” We know who the subject of the sentence is without the appositive.

Example: I drank juice.
is a noun.

We don’t really know facts about the juice; all we know is that someone is drinking juice.
**Be clear when identifying the specific noun. **
Example: I am finally done with my homework. I think that it’s my last one.
-a very simple matter and there are only 3 cases
1) Subjective: pronouns as subjects 2) Objective: pronouns as objects of verbs and prepositions 3) Possessive: pronouns that express ownership

Pronoun Case
I Me My(mine)
You You Your(yours)
He, she, it Him, her, it His, her(hers),it(its)
We Us Our(ours)
They Them Their(theirs)
Who Whom Whose

In compound structures, when only 2 pronouns (or a noun) and a pronoun, you drop the other noun, to see which case you want.

Example: Mary and me baked a delicious cake. (Would you say “me baked”?)
The correct way to write this sentence is "Mary and I baked a delicious cake.
Also in comparison, that usually follow than or as:

EX. She is prettier than I (am pretty).

Some problems of Case:
Comparisons are just small sentences which repeat words, such as in the example above. When you’re done completing the comparison in your head, you choose the case for the pronoun. Adjectives regularly answer different question.
Example: The mean teacher yelled at me for doing nothing. (This tells us what type of teacher we’re talking about.)
Basic Rules: Adverbs
-Adverbs change verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.(**HINT: many adverbs are formed by adding –ly to an adjective**) But how?
Verbs: Example “My dad looked at me thoughtfully.” -Thoughtfully is an adverb that modifies looked. It shows us how the dad looked
Adverbs: also modify adjectives and other Example:“The pianist is extremely happy.” -Happy is an adjective that modifies the noun “pianist”. Extremely is an adverb that modifies happy; it tells how happy she is.

Example: The days are short in February.
Extended Time
• To show more time, English uses these prepositions: since, for, by, from-to, from-until, during, (with) in.
Example: It has already been 2 years since he passed away. (He passed away 2 years ago.)

•• To show some places, uses these prepositions: in, inside, on, at.
Example: She put the secret box inside the hidden closet.

Higher Than a Point
• Show notions of an object that’s higher than a point, prepositions used: over, above. EX. I ran over the hill.
Lower Than a Point
• Shows notions of an object that’s lower than a point, prepositions used are: under, underneath, beneath, below. Example: I hid under the pillows, so she can’t find me.
Close To a Point
• Show notions of an object that’s lower than a point, prepositions used are: by, next to, between, among, opposite.
Example: I sat between them.
Introduce Objects of Verbs
• The prepositions used to introduce objects of verbs
• At: glance, laugh, look, rejoice, smile, stare EX. She stared at the present.
• Of: approve, consist, and smell EX: The smell of her perfume was strong.
• Of (or about): dream, think EX: I dream of meeting Demi Lovato one day.
• For: call, hope, look, wait, watch, wish EX: I hope for everything to go well after his recent death.

Just as a simple past does, the past perfect
tense calls in the past, but the action completed in the
past before another action in action of the past perfect.
Example: 1 .Allyson cooked pancakes and then ate them. (past)
2. Allyson ate pancakes that she cooked. (past perfect)
The pancakes were cooked before they were eaten.
Example: 1. Tasnim washed the dishes when her mom came home. (simple past)
2. Tasnim had washed the dishes when her mom came home. (past perfect)
In (1), Tasnim waited for her mom to come home to wash the dishes. In (2), Tasnim already finished washing the dishes by the time her mom came home.
In the sentences the expresses the result and the condition, the past perfect tense is used in the part that says the condition.
Example: 1. If i had practiced, I would have been able to do a back flip.
2. I think Yasmin would have gotten a 100 on her test if she stopped talking.
Future Perfect Tense
The future perfect tense calls action that will be finished at a particular time in
the future.

Example: 1. Tuesday has tacos for lunch in the cafeteria. (simple future)
2. By Tuesday afternoon, I will have had tacos for lunch.
(future perfect)
Notes for Agreeing in Number
-The words "everybody, anybody, anyone, each, neither, nobody, someone, a person, etc. are often misplaced as PLURAL nouns, but are actually SINGULAR nouns. Whenever you use these words, you have to use a singular pronoun

-The construction "his or her" seems wordy to most people, so if it's possible, you are able to use a PLURAL pronoun as an antecedent. That way, you can use :"they" as your pronoun. However, if the noun is singular, it's best to stick with "his" or "her" , rather than "his or her".
#2: Agreeing in person
There are 3 main types of views:
- 1st
- 2nd
When writing in the first person point of view (I, me, my) (P.O.V), don't try to confuse your reader by switching to second (you, your) or third (he, she, its). This method is the same for the second and third point of views.
Independent clauses are groups of words that contain a subject AND a verb. Independent clauses are complete thoughts (sentence).
Dependent Clause
Dependent clauses contain verbs and subjects, but do not have a complete thought. A dependent clause is not a sentence. If a dependent clause stands alone, it is considered a

Example: Ileagh MacIvers is my best friend.
Example: While the unicorn picked flowers...
Dependent Marker Word
A dependent marker word is a word added to the beginning of a independent clause (sentence) to make it a dependent clause.
Example: When the unicorn picked flowers...
In this sentence,
is the dependent marker word. The sentence "The unicorn picked flowers." was the independent clause before the dependent marker word was put there.
Connecting Dependent and Independent Clauses
There are two ways to connect a independent and dependent clause. you can use a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) or a Independent marker word. Be sure to add a comma to the beginning of a coordinating conjunction!
Independent Marker Words
An Independent marker word is a connecting word that is used at the beginning of an independent clause. These words are allowed to stand alone. When the sencond clauses already has an independent marker word, a semicolon is needed before the independent marker word.
Some independent marker words are:
, and
Common Errors
Do not put a comma between two independent cluases. Use a semicolon, or change the order of your sentence.
Example: I like puppies; they are
Fused Sentences.
Fused sentences are two sentences that you forget to put a semicolon or a period to. This creates a "run-on sentence."
Sentence Fragments
Sentence fragments are made when you make a dependent cluase a complete thought or a complete sentence.
Example: Because the rainbow was shiny.
Example: I like rainbows I like unicorns.
#3: Referring clearly to a specific noun
-Don't be vague or ambiguous
Pronoun Case:
There are three main types of pronoun cases;
Subjective Case,
(pronouns used as a subject),
Objective Case
(pronouns used as objects of verbs or prepositions), and
Possessive case
(pronouns that express ownership).
In English, regular verbs have three parts. The root, the past, and the past parciple. These can also be called the present and the simple. Regular verbs have -ed added to the root verbs on simple past AND past parciple. Irregular verbs don't follow this pattern, but use a different pattern. This is part of the list of irregular verbs in the English language. Each part has the present form of the verb, the pastform, and the past particle.
Past Particle


Was, Were


Commonly Confused Verbs
Past Participle
Lie, lying(to fib)
lie, laying(to rest)
Lay, laying (to place)
I lied about eating breakfast.
The unicorn lay on a rainbow.
Ileagh laid the baby narwhal on the water.
I have lied to my mom.
The unicorn has lain on the rainbow.
Ileagh has laid Billy the sad flower in the pot.

Lie vs. Lay
Sit vs. Set

Past Participle
Sit(to be seated
Set(To put or place
Ileagh sat in a purple chair.
The boy set his helmet on the couch.
The girl has sat there for a long time.
I have raised money for the orphanage.
Rise vs. Raise
Past Participle
Rise(to get up)
Raise(cause to rise)
The airplane slowly rose to the sky.
They raised their flags in honor of the veterans.
The king has risen to the highest position of power.
I have raised my hand in class many times.
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