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England and France Develop
Transcript of England and France Develop
1- hold and add to French lands
2- strengthen own power over nobles and the Church Henry II marries Eleanor of Aquitaine Henry II (1154-1189)
royal judges to all of England
use of juries- 12 neighbors of the accused formed a unified body of law= common law Henry's son/ Richard the Lionhearted's younger brother King John King John (1199-1216) "John Softsword" lost Normandy from Philip Augustus of France John wasn't a good king and wasn't nice either Nobles revolted June 15, 1216: Magna Carta reluctantly approved by King John guaranteed certain basic political rights
safeguard feudal rights
limit king's power
no taxation without representation
a jury trial
protection of the law Edward I needed to raise taxes for war against French, Welsh, and Scots at Westminster in London from 1300-1400 kings called on parliament whenever a new tax was needed began to assemble on their own
House of Commons- commoners
House of Lords- nobles and bishops France Hugh Capet takes crown starting the
Capetian Dynasty (987-1328) Philip II (1180-1223) Philip Augustus ("Majestic")-
King at 15
Couldn't beat Henry or Richard, but could beat John Took back Normandy in 1204 and had gained other territories as well Grandson: Louis IX (1226-1270), pious and saintly Ideal king created French appeals court- could overturn decisions of local courts- making the monarchy stronger and feudal ties weaker Church leaders: First Estate
great lords: Second Estate
commoners, wealthy landholders/merchants: Third Estate = Meetings: Estates-General Similar to Parliament but never independent brought together
2 burgesses (citizens of wealth and property) from every borough
2 knights from every county
= parliament (legislative group) Third Estate will make a showing later on