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Chapter 12: Civil War
Transcript of Chapter 12: Civil War
The Civil War The Civil War Historians don't debate the outcome of the war, but how that outcome came to be. North Won.
South Lost. Slavery was abolished. Southern secession failed.
The North and the South were once again reunited under one flag. Reconstruction paved the wasy to a new chapter in American History. The big the question is whether the North really "won" or did the South "lose"? Source 1
Blue over Gray
North had many advantages over the South.
South 5,500,000 (whites)
11 Confederate States = around 9,000,000
North 2 to 1 advantage in population
North held 70% of U.S. total 31,256 miles
Though it was not the case in this war, throughout history many weaker sides have won the war.
Will to Win
South’s will to win clearly exceeded the North, but they did not have the numbers, resources, or leadership to do so. Pg. 277
Willingness to learn from experiences (278)
Grant and Sherman
Not like other “West Pointers”
Had a new stategy that would cause a drastic change in the war.
“it appears the North had a greater war leader, and the South a weak one…” pg.278 Slavery
“Lincoln struck at slavery primarily because “military necessity” dictated new measures to disrupt the economic and social system of the enemy…” pg. 279
“strike directly at the enemy’s domestic economy”
Boldest, biggest, most complex military operation before the 20th century
Had edge before Grant and Sherman came in and changed the rules
Managed to hold their own for four years, before Grant and Sherman began to lead the North
Too many soldiers left duty without authorized leave
South states reluctant to give up guns and other weapons to support war efforts.
Had to turn away 200,000 volunteers because they could not arm them
Government could not collect efficient taxes because of “States Rights”
About 1% of revenue from taxation
States held back men as well
Most money from loans and printed money
Inflation caused money to be almost worthless before war even ended
North was relatively more modernized then south in 1861
36% of north was urban compared to south’s 9 6/10%
Ready for “the great leap forward”
Transportation, food processing, literacy (newspapers, pamphlets, books)
Little potential for rapid modernization
Overwhelmingly agriculture and tied to slave plantation made what today is an “underdeveloped society” (pg.281 & 2812)
The Impending Crisis Helper was sending a message that went against the South's stand on the war. He stated that it was ethically wrong and that essentially the North was right.
Slavery needed to be abolished.
South had to realize that the North had them beat in almost every aspect including agriculture.
Helper targeted other Southerners to rise up and oppose what their side of the war stood for and what President Davis supported. Helper was a nonslaveholding Southerner so his lifestyle had an immense role in his decision to stand up to the war cry of the South. This Union position was surely a crucial part of getting other Southerners to join his rally.
This source further proves that because of people like Helper, the South had many people who opposed the war and felt that the South was on the wrong side of it and what they were fighting for was ethically wrong. This was certainly a hinderance on the overall morale of the South in general, much less the soldiers fighting. "Slaveholders, either from ignorance or from a wilful disposition to propagate error, contend that the South has nothing to be ashamed of, that slavery has proved a blessing to her, and that her superiority over the North in an agricultural point of view makes amends for all her shortcomings in other respects." pg. 286-287 Hollitz "In an opinion, an opinion which has formed fom data ... laborious investigation, logical reasoning ... which have dwindled our commerce ... sunk a large majority of our people in galling poverty and ignorance, rendered a small minority conceited and tyrannical, and driven the rest away from their homes." pg. 286 Hollitz July 1 July 2 July 3 Who is Franklin Haskell?
Officer for the Second Corps of the Union.
Wrote an “account of the Battle of Gettysburg” [Source 5]
Battle of Gettysburg What is the battle of Gettysburg?
July 1-3 1863
Battle of Gettysburg did not end the war.
The battle did not attain any major war aim for the North or the South.
It is the most significant and memorable battle of the civil war.
The Union was ambushed by the Confederates. Tough out-numbered, the Union forces managed to hold, and even drive the Confederate army back, after the addition of the Fifth Corps.
What does Haskell’s “An account of the Battle of Gettysburg” consist of?
Provides a vivid picture of the battle as he describes it from 1000 yards away.
Sickles army was ambushed by the infantry of Longstreet and Hill.
He does not want to get involved because he believes that there would be more of a casualty than a positive outcome.
The Fifth Corps and the First Division of the Second Corps were the ones closest to the battle so they helped, making the Union forces larger.
The confederacy started to show weakness and its ammunition was nearly gone.
The 12th Corps was the one who came to the rescue.
Why the North Won "God is on the side of te heaviest battalions" - Napoleon's Aphorism
Lincoln vs. Davis
Robert E. Lee
Four Major Turning Points:
1. Counter-offensive of Jackson and Lee, and Bragg and Kirby Smith
2. Battles at Antietam and Perryville
3. Emancipation Proclamation
4. Union victories at Gettysburg, Vicksburg, and Chattanooga North
Potential superiority in forces - 3 to 1 (whites)
Actual superiority - 2 to 1
Had the advantage in economic resources and logistical capacity
Defensive advantage in battle.
Suffered from internal divisions. After analyzing our chapter and the individual sources, we have concluded that the North did not "win" but that the South "lost". Though the North had the substantial advantage in the amount of resources, they did not utilize them to their full advantage, unlike the South. The outcome of the war also points to the failure of the North to actually "win". Though they won the war, the North merely gained back the land which was originally theirs, along with immense war debts from both sides of the conflict. Towns and lives were destroyed and a continued tension ensued between the two sides. The South who lacked necessary manpower, willpower, leadership and industrial strength, prolonged the war for 4 years. They "lost" because they didn't have the proper resources for war in the firstplace. "With regard to the bushel-measure products of the soil, of which we have already taken an inventory, we have seen that there is a balance against the South in Favor of the Norht of 70,423,152 bushels, and a differece in the value of the same, also in favor of the North, of 44,782,636 dollars." pg. 287 Hollitz Hinton Helper's take on the situation of the war and how he feels about the South's involvement in the War.